Accounting Principles 8th Edition - MCCC

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Page 3-5 Use to apply costs to similar products that are mass-producedin a continuousfashion Examples include the production of Cereal, Paint, and Soft Drinks
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Process Costing Managerial Accounting Fifth Edition Weygandt Kimmel Kieso Page 3-2

study objectives 1.

Understand who uses process cost systems.

2. Explain the similarities and differences between job

order cost and process cost systems. 3. Explain the flow of costs in a process cost system. 4. Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in

a process cost system. 5. Compute equivalent units. 6. Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production

cost report. 7. Prepare a production cost report. Page 3-3

preview of chapter 3

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Nature of Process Cost Systems Uses of Process Cost Systems Use to apply costs to similar products that are mass-produced in a continuous fashion Examples include the production of Cereal, Paint, and Soft Drinks Illustration 3-1

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SO 1 Understand who uses process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Process and Job Cost Comparison Illustration 3-2

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SO 1 Understand who uses process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Review Question Which of the following items is not a characteristic of a process cost system:

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a.

Once production begins, it continues until the finished product emerges.

b.

The focus is on continually producing homogenous products.

c.

When the finished product emerges, all units have precisely the same amount of materials, labor, and overhead.

d.

The products produced are heterogeneous in nature. Solution on notes page

SO 1 Understand who uses process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Process Costing for Service Companies Service companies that provide specific, nonroutine services will probably benefit from using a job order cost system. Those that perform routine, repetitive services will probably be better off with a process cost system.

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SO 1 Understand who uses process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Similarities and Differences Between Job Order Cost and Process Cost Systems Job Order Cost Costs assigned to each job.

Products have unique characteristics.

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Process Cost Costs tracked through a series of connected manufacturing processes or departments. Products are uniform or relatively homogeneous and produced in a large volume.

SO 2 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Similarities and Differences Illustration 3-3

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SO 2 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Similarities

Differences

1. The manufacturing cost elements.

1. The number of work in process accounts used.

2. The accumulation of the costs of materials, labor, and overhead.

2. Documents used to track costs.

3. The flow of costs.

3. The point at which costs are totaled. 4. Unit cost computations.

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SO 2 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Similarities and Differences Illustration 3-4

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SO 2 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Review Question Indicate which of the following statements is not correct:

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a.

Both a job order and a process cost system track the same three manufacturing cost elements – direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

b.

In a job order cost system, only one work in process account is used, whereas in a process cost system, multiple work in process accounts are used.

c.

Manufacturing costs are accumulated the same way in a job order and in a process cost system.

d.

Manufacturing costs are assigned the same way in a job order and in a process cost system. Solution on notes page

SO 2 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. False True

1. A law firm is likely to use process costing for major lawsuits. 2. A manufacturer of paintballs is likely to use process

costing.

False

3. Both job order and process costing determine total

False

4. Process costing does not keep track of manufacturing

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costs at the end of a period of time. overhead. Solution on notes page

SO 2 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Process Cost Flow Tyler Company manufactures automatic can openers that it sells to retail outlets. Manufacturing consists of two processes: machining and assembly. The Machining Department shapes, hones, and drills the raw materials. The Assembly Department assembles and packages the parts. Illustration 3-5

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SO 3 Explain the flow of costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Assigning Manufacturing Costs Accumulation of materials, labor, and overhead costs is same as in job order costing. 

Debit Raw Materials Inventory for purchases of raw materials.



Debit Factory Labor for factory labor incurred.



Debit Manufacturing Overhead for overhead cost incurred.

Assignment of the three manufacturing cost elements to Work in Process is different. Page 3-16

SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Material Costs A process cost system requires fewer material requisition slips than a job order cost system.  Materials are used for processes and not specific jobs  Requisitions are for larger quantities of materials Journal entry to record materials used:

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SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Factory Labor Costs Time tickets may be used in both systems. All labor costs incurred within a production department are a cost of processing. The journal entry to record factory labor costs:

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SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Manufacturing Overhead Costs Objective of assigning overhead. 

Allocate overhead to departments on an objective and equitable basis.

Use the activity that ―drives‖ or causes the costs.

Machine time used - primary driver. Journal entry to allocate overhead:

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SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Transfer Costs Monthly Entry to transfer goods to next department:

Entry to transfer completed goods to Finished Goods:

Entry to record Cost of Goods sold at the time of sale:

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SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Review Question In making the journal entry to assign raw materials costs: a.

The debit is to Finished goods Inventory.

b. The debit is often to two or more work in process accounts. c.

The credit is generally to two or more work in process accounts.

d. The credit is to Finished Goods Inventory. Page 3-21

Solution on notes page

SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems K Christel Company manufactures ZEBO through two processes: blending and bottling. In June, raw materials used were Blending $18,000 and Bottling $4,000. Factory labor costs were Blending $12,000 and Bottling $5,000. Manufacturing overhead costs were Blending $6,000 and Bottling $2,500. The company transfers units completed at a cost of $19,000 in the Blending Department to the Bottling Department. The Bottling Department transfers units completed at a cost of $11,000 to Finished Goods. Journalize the assignment of these costs to the two processes and the transfer of units as appropriate. Page 3-22

SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Journalize the assignment of these costs to the two processes. To Record Materials Used: Work in Process—Blending

18,000

Work in Process—Bottling

4,000

Raw Materials Inventory

22,000

To Assign Factory Labor to Production: Work in Process—Blending

12,000

Work in Process—Bottling

5,000

Factory Labor Page 3-23

17,000 SO 4

Nature of Process Cost Systems Journalize the assignment of these costs to the two processes. To Assign Overhead to Production: Work in Process—Blending

6,000

Work in Process—Bottling

2,500

Manufacturing Overhead

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8,500

SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Nature of Process Cost Systems Journalize the transfer of units as appropriate. To Record Transfer of Units to the Bottling Department: Work in Process—Bottling

19,000

Work in Process—Blending

19,000

To Record Transfer of Units to Finished Goods: Finished Goods Inventory

Work in Process—Bottling

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11,000

11,000

SO 4 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system.

Equivalent Units Illustration: Suppose you have a work-study job in the office of your college’s president, and she asks you to compute the cost of instruction per full-time equivalent student at your college. The college’s vice president for finance provides the following information. Costs:

Total cost of instruction

Illustration 3-6

$9,000,000

Student population: Full-time students Part-time students Page 3-26

900 1,000 SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Illustration: Part-time students take 60% of the classes of a full-time student during the year. To compute the number of full-time equivalent students per year, you would make the following computation. Illustration 3-7

Cost of instruction per full-time equivalent student = Total cost of instruction

Number of full-time equivalent students

$9,000,000

/ $

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1,500 6,000

SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Weighted-Average Method Considers the degree of completion (weighting) of units completed and transferred out and units in ending work in process. Most widely used method. Beginning work in process not part of computation of equivalent units. Illustration 3-8

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SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Weighted-Average Method Illustration: The output of K Christel Company’s Packaging Department during the period consists of 10,000 units completed and transferred out, and 5,000 units in ending work in process which are 70% completed. Calculate the equivalent units of production.

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Completed units

10,000

Work in process equivalent units (5,000 x 70%)

3,500 13,500

SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Refinements on the Weighted-Average Method Illustration: Kellogg Company has produced Eggo® Waffles since 1970. Three departments produce these waffles: Mixing, Baking, and Freezing/Packaging. The Mixing Department combines dry ingredients, including flour, salt, and baking powder, with liquid ingredients, including eggs and vegetable oil, to make waffle batter. Illustration 3-9 provides information related to the Mixing

Department at the end of June.

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SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Refinements on the Weighted-Average Method Illustration: Information related to the Mixing Department at the end of June. Illustration 3-9

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SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Conversion costs are labor costs plus overhead costs. Beginning work in process is not part of the equivalentunits-of-production formula. Illustration 3-10

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SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Refined Equivalent Units of Production Formula Illustration 3-11

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SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Review Question The Mixing Department’s output during the period consists of 20,000 units completed and transferred out, and 5,000 units in ending work in process 60% complete as to materials and conversions costs. Beginning inventory is 1,000 units, 40% complete as to materials and conversion costs. The equivalent units of production are:

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a.

22,600

b.

23,000

c.

24,000

d.

25,000

Solution on notes page

SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units

current month.

The fabricating department has the following production and cost data for the

Beginning Work in Process –0–

Units Transferred Out 15,000

Ending Work in Process 10,000

Materials are entered at the beginning of the process. The ending work in process units are 30% complete as to conversion costs. Compute the equivalent units of production for (a) materials and (b) conversion costs.

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SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units

current month.

The fabricating department has the following production and cost data for the

Beginning Work in Process –0–

Units Transferred Out 15,000

Ending Work in Process 10,000

Compute the equivalent units of production for (a) materials and (b) conversion costs.

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Units transferred out

15,000

Ending work in process units

10,000 25,000 SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units

current month.

The fabricating department has the following production and cost data for the

Beginning Work in Process –0–

Units Transferred Out 15,000

Ending Work in Process 10,000

Compute the equivalent units of production for (a) materials and (b) conversion costs.

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Units transferred out

15,000

Equivalent unit in ending WIP (10,000 x 30%)

3,000 18,000

SO 5 Compute equivalents units.

Equivalent Units Production Cost Report Key document used to understand activities. Prepared for each department and shows Production Quantity and Cost data. Four steps in preparation: Step 1: Compute physical unit flow Step 2: Compute equivalent units of production Step 3: Compute unit production costs Step 4: Prepare a cost reconciliation schedule Page 3-38

SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Equivalent Units Production Cost Report Illustration 3-12

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SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Illustration: Assumed data for the Mixing Department at Kellogg Company for the month of June. Illustration 3-13

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SO 6

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1) Physical units - actual units to be accounted for during a period, regardless of work performed. Total units to be accounted for - units started (or transferred) into production during the period + units in production at beginning of period. Total units accounted for - units transferred out during period + units in production at end of period. Page 3-41

SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1) Illustration 3-14

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SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute Equivalent Units of Production (Step 2) Department  Adds materials at beginning of the process.  Incurs conversion costs uniformly during the process. Illustration 3-15

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SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Costs expressed in terms of equivalent units of production. When equivalent units of production are different for materials and for conversion costs, three unit costs are computed: 1. Materials 2. Conversion

3. Total Manufacturing Page 3-44

SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Compute total materials cost related to Eggo® Waffles: Work in process, June 1 Direct materials costs

Illustration 3-16

$ 50,000

Cost added to production during June Direct material cost Total material costs

400,000 $450,000 Illustration 3-17

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Solution on notes page

SO 6

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Compute total conversion costs related to Eggo® Waffles: Work in process, June 1 Conversion costs

Illustration 3-18

$ 35,000

Costs added to production during June Conversion costs Total conversion costs

170,000 $205,000 Illustration 3-19

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Solution on notes page

SO 6

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Illustration 3-19

Compute total manufacturing costs per unit: Illustration 3-20

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Solution on notes page

SO 6

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4) Kellogg charged total costs of $655,000 to the Mixing Department in June, calculated as follows. Costs to be accounted for Work in process, June 1

$ 85,000

Started into production

570,000

Total costs

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Illustration 3-21

$655,000

SO 6 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4) Illustration 3-22

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Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Prepare the Production Cost Report

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SO 7

Illustration 3-23

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Review Question Largo Company has unit costs of $10 for materials and $30 for conversion costs. If there are 2,500 units in ending work in process, 40% complete as to conversion costs and fully complete as to materials cost, the total cost assignable to the ending work in process inventory is:

Page 3-51

a.

$45,000.

b.

$55,000.

c.

$75,000.

d.

$100,000.

Solution on notes page

SO 7 Prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing In March, K Christel Manufacturing had the following unit production costs: materials $6 and conversion costs $9. On March 1, it had zero work in process. During March, K Christel transferred out 12,000 units. As of March 31, 800 units that were 25 percent complete as to conversion costs and 100 percent complete as to materials were in ending work in process. Assign the costs to the units transferred out and in process. Costs transferred out Work in process, March 31 Materials (800 x $6) Conversion costs (200 x $9) Total costs Page 3-52

$180,000 $4,800 1,800 $186,600 SO 7 Prepare a production cost report.

Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Costing Systems – Final Comments Companies often use a combination of a process cost and a job order cost system. Called operations costing, this hybrid system is similar to process costing in its assumption that standardized methods are used to manufacture the product. At the same time, the product may have some customized, individual features that require the use of a job order cost system. Page 3-53

SO 7 Prepare a production cost report.

 Wal-Mart has 138 million weekly customers.  In 2006 Wal-Mart had annual sales of $312 billion and net

income of more than $11.2 billion.  There are about 5,300 Wal-Mart stores worldwide. During a single recent year, it planned on adding 500 more stores, and it believes that the U.S. has room for at least 4,000 more ―supercenters.‖ Page 3-54

 During a recent year, 10,000 companies applied to be new suppliers to Wal-Mart. Of those, some 200 (about 2%) were accepted.  Wal-Mart doesn’t like to account for more than 30% of a supplier’s total business for fear that changing an order can destroy the supplier.

 As shown in the ―About the Numbers‖ section in the next column, Wal-Mart’s ―kingdom‖ spreads across many different countries. Recently, however, it sold all of its stores in Germany because they could not meet its desired profitability goals. Page 3-55

Wal-Mart continues to grow across the world, but its success varies across countries. The following chart

shows total store count in various countries.

Source: Based on data from Wal-Mart 2006 Annual Report, p. 51. Page 3-56

Suppose that you were Colin Roche, whose PenAgain pen was recently offered a 30-day trial period at 500 Wal-Mart stores. In order for the product to pass the trial, in one month Wal-Mart needs to sell 85% of the 48,000 pens that it ordered. If it does, it will then order pens for a much wider distribution at many more of its stores. If it doesn’t, the deal is off. The PenAgain company gets between $6.49 and $12 from other retailers for the PenAgain pen, but WalMart is willing to pay only $3.76. Last year total sales of PenAgain were $2,000,000. If you were Colin Roche, would you accept Wal-Mart’s offer?

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If you were Colin Roche, would you accept Wal-Mart’s offer? YES: Are you kidding? If only a tiny fraction of Wal-Mart customers buy a pen, the company’s sales will go through the roof. You have to take a shot at it.

NO: The risks are high on two counts. First, the company has to dramatically increase its operations in order to meet the production requirements. What will it do with this excess capacity if the deal falls through? Second, the company risks alienating the retailers that it currently supplies with pens. It could lose both Wal-Mart and its existing customers. Page 3-58

FIFO Method

.

Equivalent Units Under FIFO Equivalent units are the sum of the work performed to: 1. Finish the units of beginning work in process inventory. 2. Complete the units started into production during the period (referred to as the units started and completed). 3. Start, but only partially complete, the units in ending work in process inventory.

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

.

Equivalent Units Under FIFO Illustration 3A-1 shows the physical flow of units for the Assembly Department of Shutters Inc. Illustration 3A-1

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Equivalent Units Under FIFO Illustration: Equivalent units for the Assembly Department is computed as follows: Illustration 3A-2

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1) Unit and Cost Data – Mixing Department

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SO8

Illustration 3A-3

FIFO Method

Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1) Physical Unit Flow

Illustration 3A-4

- Mixing Department

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1) Physical Unit Flow (FIFO) -

Illustration 3A-5

Mixing

Department

The Mixing Department must account for 900,000 units. 700,000 units were transferred to the Baking Department and 200,000 units were still in process. Page 3-64

SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Compute Equivalent Units of Production (Step 2) Equivalent Units For Materials Kellogg adds materials at the beginning of the process. In addition, 100 percent of the materials costs has been incurred on the ending work in process. Illustration 3A-6

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Compute Equivalent Units of Production (Step 2) Equivalent Units For Conversion Costs The Mixing Department required 30,000 equivalent units (30% 100,000 units) of conversion costs to complete the beginning inventory. In addition, the 200,000 units of ending work in process were 60 percent complete in terms of conversion costs. Illustration 3A-7

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SO8

FIFO Method

Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Under the FIFO method, the unit costs of production are based entirely on the production costs incurred during the month. Illustration 3A-8

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Compute the unit materials cost, unit conversion costs, and total unit cost. Illustration 3A-9

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Solution on notes page

SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4) Kellogg is now ready to determine the cost of goods transferred out of the Mixing Department to the Baking Department and the costs in ending work in process. The total costs charged to the Mixing Department in June are as follows. Illustration 3A-10

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SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4) Kellogg next prepares a cost reconciliation to assign these costs to (1) units transferred out to the Baking Department and (2) ending work in process. Illustration 3A-11

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SO8

FIFO Method

Prepare the Production Cost Report Internal document for management that shows production quantity and cost data for a production department. Provides a basis for evaluating the productivity of a

department. Managers can use the cost data to assess whether unit costs and total costs are reasonable. Top management can also judge whether current performance is meeting planned objectives. Page 3-71

SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

FIFO Method

Prepare the Production Cost Report

Illustration 3A-12 Page 3-72

SO8

FIFO Method

FIFO and Weighted-Average Weighted-average is simple to understand and apply. In cases where prices do not fluctuate significantly, weighted-average will be very similar to FIFO. Conceptually, the FIFO method is superior because it measures current performance using only costs incurred in the current period. FIFO method provides current cost information,

which the company can use to establish more accurate pricing strategies for goods manufactured and sold. Page 3-73

SO8 Compute equivalent units using the FIFO method.

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