Aeneid Vocab

345kB Size 4 Downloads 81 Views

ancora anchor. Androgeos son of Minos, king of ... attollo lift up, raise up; rear. attonitus thunderstruck; awed .... celer quick, swift, speedy. celero quicken, hasten ...
COMPLETE AP VERGIL VOCABULARY

a, ab from, away from, by Abas 1. an Argive King 2. a friend of Aeneas abdo put away, hide, shut up abeo go away, depart, withdraw, deviate abies spruce, fir abluo wash off, purify; cleanse abnuo refuse, decline, reject abripio snatch away, snatch, seize abrumpo break off, destroy, violate abscessus departure, absence abscondo put away, conceal, hide absens absent, distant, left behind absisto withdraw, depart from; cease; abstineo hold back, refrain abstrudo thrust away; hide absum be absent or away from; be wanting ac same as atque – and, and also Acamas one of the Greeks at Troy accedo come or draw near, go to, approach accendo set on fire; inflame; arouse; inspire accingo gird, equip, make ready accipio receive, accept, admit, welcome accumbo recline at, take one’s place at the table accumulo heap up, honor acer sharp, keen, fierce, violent acervus pointed pile, heap Acestes king of Sicily Achates Aeneas’s constant companion Acheron river of the underworld Achilles greatest of the Greek heroes at Troy Achivus Greek, pl. Greeks acies sharp edge, battle line, keen vision acutus sharpened, sharp, pointed, jagged ad to, toward, near, at, by addenseo thicken, pack densely addo give in addition, put to, add, lend adeo to that degree, so adeo adire – go to, approach, reach visit, encounter, meet adfligo shatter, cast down adflo breath upon, inspire adfluo flow to, come to adfor address, speak to adgredior approach, go to adhuc hitherto, till now, as yet adicio throw at, add adigo drive to, drive, hurl, force adimo take to oneself, take away, snatch away aditus approach, audience, entrance adiuro call to witness, swear by adiuvo aid, assist, help adlabor glide to adloquor address, speak to admiror wonder at, be surprised at admoneo warn admonish, remind admoveo move or bring to, offer adnitor strive, lean on adnuo nod assent, promise adoro pray to, worship, adore adquiro acquire, gain adservo guard, watch adsiduus constant, unceasing adsisto stand by, attend; make a stand adspecto look at, look towards, overlook adspicio look at, observe, inspect adsto stand near; be at hand, look on; stand up adsum be present, be at hand, near adsurgo rise up, stand up, rise adultus adult, full grown advena stranger, foreigner advenio come to, come adversor oppose, resist adversus turned toward, opposing, facing, adverse adverto turn toward, give heed, note, notice advolo fly to, fly towards advolvo roll to or toward adytum sanctuary, shrine, tomb Aeacides descendant of Aeacus, i.e. Achilles aedes hearth; pl. apartments; house, dwelling aedifico build, construct aeger sick, diseased, weary, weak aemulus rivaling, competing Aeneadae followers of Aeneas Aeneas hero of the Aeneid Aeneius of Aeneas aenum kettle, cauldron aenus of bronze, brazen Aeolia an island near Sicily, abode of Aeolus Aeolides son or descendant of Aeolus Aeolus god of the winds aequaevus of the same or equal age aequo make equal, adjust, equal, match, do justice to aequor the sea, surface of the sea, a level surface aequus even, level, just, fair aer air, breeze, mist, cloud aeratus made of or covered with bronze; brazen aereus made of or plated with bronze; brazen aerius airy, high, lofty, towering aes copper, bronze aestas summer, summer air aestus heat, flame; tide, sea, flood aetas age; old age; years, time aeternus everlasting, eternal aether upper air, ether; air; sky, heaven aetherius of the ether, of heaven aevum age, time; old age Africa Northern Africa Africus the southwest wind Agathyrsi people of Scythia Agenor a king of Phoenicia and ancestor of Dido ager field, land agger heap, mound; elevation; dike; rampart aggero heap up, increase agitator driver, charioteer agito drive with violence; chase, torment, harass agmen army (on the march), column, train, formation, rank, line agnosco recognize ago drive, do, pursue, conduct imp – Come! Aiax one of two Greek heroes 1. son of Telamon 2. son of Oileus ait says, asserts ala wing, pinion alatus winged Alba Alba Longa, an ancient city of Latium Albanus of Alba, Alban Alcides descendant of Alcaeus, i.e. Hercules ales winged, as noun-winged creature, bird Aletes a friend of Aeneas alienus another’s, foreign aliqui some, any aliquis someone, anyone aliter otherwise alius another, other, else alligo bind, tie, fasten, imprison almus nourishing, fostering, propitious, kindly alo nourish, feed, encourage, strengthen, rear Alpinus of the Alps, Alpine altaria altar alter one of the two, the other alterno do by turns; waver, hesitate alternus one after the other; in turn altus high, lofty; deep, profound; as noun altum – the sea, heaven alumnus nursling, foster-child, child, son alvus belly, body amarus bitter, unpleasant, unwelcome Amazonis an Amazon ambages turning, winding; riddle, mystery; details ambio go around, surround, encircle, approach ambo both; tow ambrosius ambrosial, diving; immortal; lovely amens senseless; frantic, distracted; amazed amicio throw around; wrap, envelop amictus cloak, mantle, robe; veil amicus friendly; as noun - friend amitto lose, send away; let go amnis river, stream; torrent amo love, cherish, like amor love, affection, fondness; as person - Cupid amplector enfold, embrace, wind about amplus grand, roomy, spacious; splendid, glorious Amycus king of the Bebrycians or friend of Aeneas an or Anchises Aeneas’s father Anchisiades descendant of Anchises ancora anchor Androgeos son of Minos, king of Crete; or Greek hero slain at Troy anguis serpent, snake angustus narrow, as noun – narrow place anhelus panting, heaving anima breath, breath of life; life, existence; shade, soul spirit animus soul, spirit, heart, courage, daring, feeling Anna Dido’s sister annalis annual, yearly annosus aged, old annus year ante before, in front of, previously antefero put before, carry before Antenor Trojan leader, founder of Patavium Antheus friend of Aeneas antiquus of olden times, ancient, aged, former antrum cave, cavern, grotto aper wild boar aperio open, uncover, disclose, reveal apex tip, point, summit apis bee Apollo god of music and prophecy appareo appear, be disclosed, be seen appello drive to, bring to apto fit, adjust, equip aqua water Aquilo the north wind, wind aquosus watery, rainy, rain-bearing ara altar arbor tree, trunk, shoot arboreus treelike, branching arbos see arbor Arcades Arcadians Arcadius of Arcadia arcanus secret, hidden arceo bind, confine, keep off, debar arcesso cause to come, call, summon Arctos the North arcus bow, rainbow, curve, bend ardens burning, blazing, fiery, flashy ardeo be on fire, burn, blaze arduus steep, high, lofty, towering argentum silver; silver plate Argivus Greek, Argive Argolicus of Argos, Greek Argos Greek arguo prove, reveal, betray aridus dry, parched aries ram, battering ram arma arms, weapons; tools, equipment armatus armed, equipped armentum cattle for plowing; herd, drove armiger armor-bearer armo equip, arm armus shoulder; flank aro plow, till; inhabit arrigo direct to, raise, uplift ars skill, dexterity; art; practice artifex artist, artisan, contriver artus joint, limb, frame, body arvum plowed land, cultivated field, field arx citadel, fortress, stronghold; hill, peak Ascanius Aeneas’s son ascendo climb, mount, ascend Asia Asia Minor aspecto look at, gaze at; face aspectus sight, view, appearance asper rough; thorny, jagged; harsh aspicio look at, look upon, behold; regard asporto carry away; carry off Assaracus former king of Troy, Anchises’ grandfather ast but; yet, at least astrum star; pl. heaven asylum place of refuge; sanctuary at but; yet, at least ater black, dark, sable, dusky; gloomy Atlas mt. in N. Africa; personified as giant atque and, and also; but, than Atrides descendant of Atreus, especially Agamemnon or Menelaus atrium court, hall, atrium, room attollo lift up, raise up; rear attonitus thunderstruck; awed, amazed, dazed attono thunder at, stun; strike with awe auctor father, progenitor, producer audens daring, bold, courageous audeo dare, venture, risk audio hear, listen to aufero take away, carry off, withdraw, remove augur seer, soothsayer, diviner, augur augurium the observance of omens, augury aula court, yard, inner court Aulis town on the coast of Boetia aura air, breeze, wind, blast aureus golden, of gold auricomus golden-haired, with golden foliage auriga charioteer, driver auris ear Aurora morning, dawn, personified as goddess of morning aurum gold Ausonius Ausonian, Italian auspex an interpreter of omens given by birds, diviner, augur auspicium divination by the flight of birds, augury from birds auster the south wind aut or; aut…aut= either…or autem however, on the other hand Automedon Greek charioteer of Achilles auxilium help, aid, assistance avarus greedy, covetous aveho carry away, take away avello tear away, pluck, snatch away Avernus a lake near Cumae (entrance to the underworld) averto turn away, avert, remove avidus eager, greedy, desirous avis bird avius out of the way, remote, trackless avus grandfather axis axle, heaven, open sky bacchor celebrate the festival of Bacchus Bacchus god of wine, son of Jupiter and Semele balteus belt, sword-belt barba beard barbaricus foreign, strange, barbaric Barcaei inhabitants of Barce, a town in Libya beatus happy, blessed, fortunate bellatrix female warrior bello wage war, war bellum war bene well, agreeably benignus kind, good, friendly, pleasing bibo drink bidens a sheep, (literally-having two teeth) biformis of double form, two-shaped bigae a team of two horses, a two-horse chariot biiugus two yoked together bini two by two, two each bipennis a two-edged axe, double axe, battle-axe biremis a ship with two banks of oars bis twice, double bonus good Boreas the north wind, the North bracchium arm; the fore-arm brattea thin plate of leaf or metal; metal brevis short, brief bruma winter brumalis wintry bulla knob, stud, bubble, Byrsa citadel of Carthage cado fall, fall down, descend cadus jar, urn caecus blind caedes killing, slaughter, carnage caedo cut, cut down, strike, kill caelestis of heaven, from heaven, as noun – the heavenly bodies caelo engrave, carve caelum sky, heaven, the heavens Caesar Augustus or Julius Caicus friend of Aeneas Caieta town on the coast of Latium calcar spur caleo glow, be hot, be warm calidus warm, hot callis a path, mountain-path calor heat, warmth, glow campus field, plan, level place candeo shine, glitter, glisten canis dog cano sing, sound, play canorus melodious, harmonious cantus song, singing canus white, hoary capesso seize eagerly, snatch at, lay hold of capio seize, grasp, capture capra she-goat captivus prisoner, captive capulus hilt caput head, the summit, person Capys friend of Aeneas or king of Alba carbasus canvas, sail carcer prison, jail cardo hinge careo lack, be free from carina keel; ship carmen song, poem, verse carpo pluck, pick, tear away carus dear, precious, valued Cassandra daughter of Priam and priestess of Apollo castigo correct, chastise, blame, chide castra military camp casus fall, falling-down, ruin, failure caterva crowd, troop, throng Caucasus chain of mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas causa cause, reason, motive cautes crag, pointed rock caverna cave, cavern, grotto cavo hollow out, excavate cavus hollow, excavated Cecropidae Athenians (descendants of Cecrops, founder of Athens) cedo go from, remove, withdraw, abandon celebro frequent, crowd, throng, practice, celebrate celer quick, swift, speedy celero quicken, hasten, accelerate cella store-room, cell, sanctuary celo hide, conceal from, elude, cover celsus lofty, elevated, towering centum 100 Cerealis sacred to Ceres Ceres daughter of Saturn, goddess of agriculture cerno separate, distinguish, discern, perceive certamen contest, struggle, strife certo fight, contend, struggle certus determined, resolved, fixed, certain cerva hind, deer (female) cervix neck, nape cervus stag, deer (male) cesso delay, loiter, do nothing ceteri the others, the rest ceu as, like, just as Chalcidicus of Chalcis, of Cumae chlamys mantle, military cloak chorus troop of dancers, chorus cieo cause to go, move; rouse, stir, call cingo equip, gird oneself; surround, encircle cingulum belt, girdle cinis ashes circa around, round about, near circum around, all around circumdo surround, place around, encompass circumspicio look about, observe circumsto stand around, surround circumvenio encircle, be around circumvolo fly around Cithaeron mountain sacred to Bacchus cithara lute, cithara cito quickly citus quick, swift, rapid civis citizen clam secretly, covertly clamo shout, call, cry out clamor shout clarus clear, bright, famous classis fleet, division claudo shut, close, enclose claustrum bar, bolt, barrier clipeus round shield Cloanthus friend of Aeneas Clonus Clonus, a craftsman Cocytus river of the underworld coeo come together, meet, assemble coepi begin, commence coetus assemblage, crowd, company Coeus one of the Titans cognomen surname, second-name, family-name cognosco ascertain, understand, learn, know cogo collect, compel, force, urge colligo gather, collect; assemble collis hill collum neck colo till, care for, cultivate; honor, love colonus farmer, settler color color, hue, tint coluber snake, serpent columba dove, pigeon columna pillar, column, post coma hair; foliage comes friend, companion, comrade comitatus escort, crowd, retinue comitor accompany, attend, follow commendo commit, entrust; command comminus hand to hand, in close contest, near commisceo mix, mingle together, unite committo join, commit, fight, entrust, practice commoveo shake, stir, trouble; displace, carry away communis common, general, universal como comb, arrange, braid compages joint, structure compello accost, address; reproach, rebuke complector clasp, embrace, grasp compleo fill, fill up, cram compono collect, lay; put to rest, quiet comprendo take hold of, seize, grasp concedo withdraw; grant; permit concha shell concido fall, collapse concilio bring together, unite concio move violently, shake conclamo shout, acclaim; call loudly concludo close, shut up; restrain, limit, restrict concresco grow together, harden; take form, grow concurro assemble, gather, battle, fight concursus throng, mob, tumult, concourse concutio shake, agitate, shock condensus dense, close, thick, crowded condo found, establish, build confido trust, confide, rely on confio be arranged, be accomplished confundo mingle, mix, blend; pour out congero bring together, collect; construct, accumulate congressus meeting, assembly, conference conicio throw, hurl, thrust; conclude, infer coniugium marriage, union coniungo join, unite, gather coniunx spouse, husband, wife conlabor fall in ruins, crumble, sink conor try, attempt, begin conscendo climb, ascend, mount conscius witnessing, privy, knowing, conscious consido settle, sit down, sink down consilium council, plan, stratagem consisto stand still, halt, stop, make a stand conspectus sight, view, presence conspicio perceive, observe, look at consterno strew, pave, cover constituo decide, establish, determine consulo reflect, deliberate, consider, resolve consultum decree, decision; deliberation consumo use up, eat, devour consurgo rise, stand up, arise contendo strain, hasten, press on; fight conticesco fall silent, become still contiguus bordering, neighboring, adjoining contingo happen; touch, take hold of, seize, touch, concern continuo immediately, without delay contorqueo turn, twist, twirl contra against, opposite, facing contraho collect, assemble, accomplish contrarius opposite, contrary, opposed contundo beat, crush, pound conubium marriage convallis valley, ravine convecto carry together, heap together convello tear away, pull off, wrest, rend convenio gather, assemble converto turn round reverse; change, alter convexum hollow, cavity, recess convivium feast, banquet convolvo roll together, roll around, fasten together coorior stand up, arise, appear copia plenty, supply, pl. troops cor heart coram in the presence of, openly corneus of horn cornu horn, antler; trumpet corona garland corpus body corripio seize, snatch, grasp; attack corrumpo destroy, ruin, lay waste; corrupt corruo fall down, tumble, sink corusco vibrate, tremble, shake, brandish coruscus flashing, gleaming, glittering costa rib cothurnus hunting boot, buskin crastinus tomorrow’s crater mixing bowl creber frequent, thick, close credo believe, trust, confide in crepito rattle, creak, rustle crepitus rattling, creaking cresco grow, increase, rise Cresius Cretan Cretes Cretans, people of Crete Creusa Aeneas’s wife crinis hair crispo swing, brandish cristatus crested, tufted, plumed croceus yellow, golden, saffron-colored crudelis cruel, unfeeling, hard cruentus spotted with blood, bloody, stained cruor blood, bloodshed, gore cubile couch, bed, marriage-bed cubitum elbow culmen top summit, roof, gable culpa fault, error, blame, guilt, failure cum prep. with, conjunction when, since, although Cumae town on the coast of Campania Cumaeus of Cumae cumulo heap, accumulate, pile, overload cumulus heap, pile, mass, surplus cunctor delay, linger, hesitate cunctus all, entire, all together cuneus a wedge cupido desire, wish longing; as a person-Venus’s son cupio long for, desire, wish cur why? cura anxiety, distress, care, concern curo care for, take pains with, attend to curro run, hasten currus chariot, car, wagon cursus running course, a run, journey curvus crooked, curved, bent cuspis point, spear, javelin, lance custos guard, overseer, protector Cyclopius of the Cyclops cycnus swan Cyllenius Mercury; mountain in Arcadia, his birthplace Cymothoe a sea nymph Cynthus mountain in Delos, the birthplace of Diana and Apollo Cythereus of Cythera (island in the Aegean near Venus’s birthplace) Daedalus famous artisan, father of Icarus damno condemn, convict, blame Danaus of Danaus (famous Greek king) pl. the Greeks daps feast, banquet Dardanides descendants of Dardanus, i.e. Trojans Dardanius Trojan, of Dardanus Dardanus of Dardanus, Trojan Daunus early king of Apulia de from, away from, down from; concerning, according to dea goddess debello subdue, quell, vanquish debeo owe, be in debt; ought decedo go away, withdraw, depart decerpo pluck off, tear away, break decet it is fitting, it is proper decipio catch, ensnare, entrap; deceive declino bend aside, tear away; deflect decurro run down, hasten decus grace, glory, honor deduco lead away, escort, turn aside, drive off defendo defend, protect defensor protector, defender defero bear, carry; report defessus tired, weary, exhausted deficio revolt, desert; fail defigo fasten, fix, plant defluo glide down, fall, descend deformo disfigure, spoil, mar defungor discharge, perform, finish degener degenerate, unworthy dehinc henceforth, hereafter, next, then dehisco part, divide, split open deicio throw down, cut down, destroy deinde then, next, thence Deiopea a nymph Deiphobus son of Priam deligo choose, select, designate Delius of Delos; of Apollo Delos island in the Aegean, birthplace of Apollo delubrum temple, shrine, sanctuary demens insane, demented, mad, raving, foolish demitto let down, drop, let fall, shed demo take away, take off, subtract demum at length, at last, finally deni ten each, ten at a time denique and thereafter, at last, at length, finally dens tooth densus thick, close, dense, compact depascor to eat up, feed on deprecor avert by prayer, deprecate, seek to avoid deripio tear off, tear away, pull down desaevio rage, rave furiously descendo go down, climb down, descend descensus way down, descent describo transcribe, write down; describe desero leave, forsake, abandon, desert deserta waste lands, wilderness desertus deserted, solitary, lonely desilio jump down, leap down, dismount desino stop, desist, cease desisto cease, desist from despecto despise, look down on despicio despise, look down on, disparage destruo tear down, raze, demolish desuetus disused, unfamiliar, obsolete desum be away, be absent, fail, be missing desuper from above, from overhead detineo hold back, hold off, keep back, detain, check detorqueo bend aside, turn off, twist detrudo thrust away, push down, dislodge, dispossess deus god, deity devenio come, arrive, reach devolo fly down dexter right, to the right; skillful Diana sister of Apollo; goddess of the moon and hunt dicio dominion, sovereignty, sway, authority control dico dicere - say, speak, sing, describe, name dico dicare - dedicate, consecrate, devote Dictaeus of Dicte, a mountain in Crete dictum assertion, remark, saying Dido queen of Carthage dies day difficilis difficult, hard, troublesome diffugio fly apart, disperse, scatter diffundo pour out, pour forth; spread dignor deem worthy, honor, deign dignus worthy, deserving, suitable, fitting, proper digredior go apart, separate, part, go away, depart dilabor go to pieces, melt away, dissolve, scatter, disperse diligo value, esteem, prize, love; approve dimoveo part, separate, divide dirigo direct diripio tear apart, ravage, spoil, plunder, pillage dirus ominous, fearful, awful, dreadful, horrible Dis Pluto, god of the underworld discerno separate, divide; distinguish, discern discessus departure, farewell, removal discolor of another color, not of the same color; of different colors discrepo differ in sound, be different, vary discrimen interval, distance, distinction, difference; decisive moment, crisis disicio drive asunder, scatter, route; ruin, destroy disiungo sever, divide, separate, estrange dispello scatter, disperse dissimulo disguise; dissemble, hide, conceal, pretend dissulto fly in pieces, break apart distendo swell, stretch out, extend diu for a long time, all day, continually diva goddess divello tear apart, separate violently, tear, wrest diversus contrary, opposite, diverse, different dives rich, wealthy, opulent divido divide, force asunder, part, distribute divinus divine divus of a deity, godlike, divine do give, appoint; grant, bestow; emit, utter doceo teach, instruct, inform doleo grieve, suffer, be in pain, lament Dolopes a people of Thessaly dolor pain, suffering, anguish, distress, grief, trouble dolus trickery, artifice; guile, deceit, deception dominor have dominion, domineer, rule dominus lord, master, ruler, owner domo domesticate, tame, break, subdue, conquer domus house, home, dwelling, building donec while, as long as; until, at length donum gift, present Doricus Doric; Grecian dorsum back; cliff dotalis of a dowry, dotal draco serpent, large serpent, dragon Dryopes people in Epirus dubius doubtful, uncertain, wavering duco lead, lead away, guide, conduct, prolong; choose ductor leader, commander, general dulcis sweet, agreeable, delightful, agreeable dum while; with subjunctive=until duo two duplex twofold, double duplicatus doubled duro harden, solidify; wait, persevere, hold out durus hard, harsh, vigorous; pitiless, unyielding dux leader, guide, general e, ex out of, from; of; since; according to eburnus of ivory ecce behold! look! edax greedy, voracious, devouring edo eat, consume educo draw out, take away; bring up, rear effero carry out, take away; bear, produce efferus very wild, fierce, savage efficio bring about, effect, cause, produce effingo wipe clean; form, fashion, mould effodio dig out, mine, excavate effor utter, tell, speak out effugio get away, escape; flee from effundo pour out, pour forth; abandon egenus needy, necessitous, destitute egeo be needy, want, lack, have need ego I egredior to out, come forth, go away; disembark, land egregius distinguished, excellent, eminent ei oh! alas! eicio eject, expel; banish, drive away elabor slip away, glide off, escape elephantus ivory; an elephant Elissa another name for Dido emico spring out, break forth, leap up eminus aloof, at a distance emitto send out; hurl, cast discharge emo buy, purchase, procure emoveo move out, move away, expel en lo! behold! see! Enceladus a giant enim for, namely, that is to say eniteo shine forth, gleam eno swim out,; fly ensis sword enumero count out; recite, recount, describe eo go, walk, ride, sail, move Eous of dawn, eastern, oriental Epeos one of the Greek fighters at Troy epulae banquet, feast; sumptuous foods epulor dine, feast, banquet eques horseman, rider equidem indeed, truly equus horse Erebus god of darkness; the underworld ergo therefore, consequently, accordingly eripio tear out, wrest, pluck tear; rescue deliver, free erro wander, stray, roam; be in error error wandering, winding, meandering, maze erubesco grow red, blush, feel ashamed eruo throw out, take; destroy completely et and, also etiam also, too, even; still Etrusci the Etruscans Euboicus of Euboea (an island in the western Aegean) Europa Europe Eurotas a river in Laconia Eurus southeast or east wind Eurytides son of Eurytus evado get away, escape; disembark Evander leader of the Arcadians; Pallas’s father evanesco vanish, pass away, disappear eveho carry out, proceed, advance evenio come out; happen, result eventus outcome, result end, consequence everto overturn, turn upside down; overthrow, destroy evinco overcome, conquer, subdue evoco call out ex out of, from exanimus lifeless, dead exaudio hear clearly, distinguish excedo leave, depart, go out excidium overthrow, demolition, ruin, destruction excido excidere, excididi - cut out, hew out excido excidere, excidi – fall out, slip out excio call out, summon, rouse, awaken excipio take out, withdraw; take up, catch, receive exclamo call out, cry aloud, exclaim excubiae watching, keeping watch, watchmen excudo strike out, hammer out; prepare, make excutio shake out, shake off; discard, remove exeo go out, depart, withdraw; escape exerceo employ, busy; occupy exhalo breath out, exhale exhaurio exhaust, empty; take away exigo drive out expel; determine, ascertain exiguus small, little, scanty eximo take away, remove; free, release, deliver exin then, after that, next exitialis destructive, fatal, deadly exitium destruction, ruin exitus departure; death; conclusion exordium beginning; introduction exorior come out, rise, appear; begin exosus hating, detesting expedio extricate; explain, make clear; arrange expendo weigh out, weigh; reckon, account; estimate, consider experior try, prove, test, endure; know by experience expiro breathe out expleo fill up, fill, stuff; pass over, go through; satisfy, appease exploro search out, investigate, explore exposco beg, request, entreat, implore expromo express, state; exhibit, show, display exquiro seek out; implore exsanguis bloodless, lifeless; pale, wan exscindo extirpate, annihilate, destroy exsequor follow; fulfill; relate, describe exsertus bare, uncovered; projecting exsilium exile, banishment exsolvo deliver, free, set free, liberate exspecto look out for, await, expect exstinguo put out, quench, extinguish; abolish, destroy annihilate exstruo pile, heap up; build up exsulto leap up, jump up; boast, indulge exsupero mount up, tower; pass over; excel exta guts, internal organs extemplo immediately, without delay extendo spread, extend; lengthen; continue externus external; foreign, strange exterritus terrified, dismayed; made wild exterus outside, outer extremus outermost, utmost, farthest; remotest; tip exuo take off, pull off; put away, lay aside exuviae spoils; relics; skin fabricator builder, contriver fabrico build, make, construct, erect facesso perform, execute, accomplish facies appearance, form, shape facilis easy facio make, do, produce, build factum deed, act, achievement fallo trip, fall;err, mistake, deceive oneself falsus deceptive, false, spurious, delusive fama report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition Fama personification of above fames hunger famula female slave, maid-servant far type of grain; sacrificial meal fas divine law; with est=it is lawful, it is permitted fastigium top, summit; roof, battlement fatalis fatal, decreed, ordained, destined fateor confess, grant, acknowledge fatigo tire, weary, fatigue, vex, harass fatisco fall apart, tumble to peaces fatum prediction; fate faux throat; entrance fax torch, flame felix happy, fortunate; auspicious femina woman, female femineus womanly, feminine femur thigh fenestra window, opening fera wild beast, wild animal ferina venison, game; wild animal flesh ferio strike, beat; kill fero bring, carry, bear, wear; report; offer ferox wild, bold, warlike ferrum iron; iron tool; sword ferus wild, untamed, uncultivated ferveo glow, steam; burn, rage, rave fervidus glowing, fiery, hot, vehement fessus tired, fatigued, weary festino hurry, hasten festus festive, joyful, merry fetus filled with, pregnant fetus fetus, m. young, offspring; fruit, growth fibula clasp, buckle, fastening, brooch fictus feigned, fictitious, false fides faith, loyalty, belief, reliance; trustworthiness fiducia trust, confidence fidus loyal, faithful, credible figo fix, fasten; pierce filius son filum thread, string fingo arrange, touch; suppose, think, conceive finis end, boundary, limit; pl. territory fio passive of facio – become, be made firmus strong, steadfast, enduring fissilis cleft, easily split, fissile flamen priest; also wind, gale flamma flame, blaze; flame of passion; flammo kindle, inflame, blaze, burn flatus blowing, breath, snorting flavus golden, yellow, reddish yellow, flaxen-colored flecto turn, bend, bow; avert; avoid fleo weep, cry, lament, wail fletus weeping, wailing, lamenting floreo bloom, blossom, flower; flourish floreus flowery flos flower, blossom fluctus wave, tide, billow, surge fluentum stream, flood flumen stream, river fluo flow, pour, throng fodio dig, dig up; stab foedo make foul, defile, pollute foedus foederis, n. alliance, compact; marriage contract foedus foul, filthy, repulsive; disgraceful folium leaf fomes kindling-wood, tinder fons fountain, spring, source for speak, say; prophesy foris door, entrance forma form, shape; beauty formica ant fors chance, luck, fortune forsan perhaps forsitan perhaps, it may be that fortis brave, strong, courageous fortuna fortune, chance, luck fortunatus lucky, happy, fortunate foveo cherish, fondle, caress fragor crashing, crash, noise; thunderclap fragrans fragrant, sweet-smelling frango break, shatter, fracture; crush, dishearten frater brother fraternus brotherly, fraternal fraudo cheat, defraud, rob fraus cheating, deceit, fraud fraxineus ashen, of ash wood fremo roar, resound, howl; applaud; grumble because of freno curb, bridle, restrain, check frenum bridle, curb, bit; restraint frequens regular, constant, repeated; with a throng fretus leaning, supported, relying frigidus cold, cool, chilling frigus coldness, cold, chilliness; cold shudder frondens in leaf, becoming green, leafy frondesco put forth leaves; shoot frondeus covered with leaves, leafy frons frontis, f., front, facade; forehead; expression frons frondis, f., leafy branch, foliage, bough frumentum grain, harvested grain frustra in vain, for nothing frustum piece, bit frux fruit, produce fucus drone fuga flight, rapid motion fugio flee, run away, escape fugo cause to flee, put to flight fulcio prop up, support fulgeo flash, glitter, gleam, shine fulmen lightning flash; thunderbolt fulvus deep yellow, reddish yellow, tawny fundamentum foundation fundo fundere – pour, pour out, shed; spread fundo fundare – found, begin; fix, confirm fungor be engaged, perform, discharge funis rope, cord funus funeral procession, funeral rites, burial; death, murder furiae the three goddesses of vengeance, the furies furibundus raging, mad furious furo rage, rave, be out of one’s mind furor raving, rage, madness, fury, passion furtim stealthily, secretly, furtively furtivus stolen, secret, hidden, concealed, furtive furtum theft, robbery; secret action, crafty deceit Gaetulus of the Gaetuli, a N. African tribe galea helmet Gallus of Gaul, Gallic Ganymes Ganymede, Trojan prince, made Jupiter’s cupbearer Garamantis of the Garamantes, a N. African tribe gaudeo rejoice, be glad gaudium joy, delight gaza treasure gelidus icy cold, icy, frosty geminus twin gemitus groan, sighing, complaint gemo groan, sigh, lament; bewail gena cheek genetrix mother genitor father gens race, clan; descendant, offspring genu knee genus race, stock, family; birth, noble birth; descendant germana sister germanus brother gero bear, carry, wage gesto bear, carry, wear, wield gigno give birth to, produce, bear, bring forth glacies ice Glaucus Lycian ally of the Trojans glomero collect; gather gloria glory, fame, honor, praise Gnosius of Gnosus, a city in Crete gradior step, walk to, advance gradus step, pace, gait, walk; pl. steps Graius Greek gramen grass; plant, herb grandaevus aged, old grandis full-grown, grown up, old grando hail, hailstorm grates thanks, thanksgiving gratus dear, acceptable, pleasing, agreeable gravidus filled, full, swollen gravis heavy, weighty, burdened gremium lap, bosom gressus step, course, way grex flock, herd, drove, swarm Gryneus of Grynia, site of a temple of Apollo gurges whirlpool, gulf gusto taste, enjoy Gyas friend of Aeneas habena rein habeo have, hold, support, carry; consider, regard habilis manageable, suitable, fit, proper habitus appearance, presence; dress, attire hactenus thus far, to this place, so far; till now haereo cling, stick, be fastened; linger, pause Halaesus Halaesus, (Italian warrior, enemy of the Trojans) halitus breath, exhalation halo breathe, emit vapor, be fragrant Hammon Libyan god identified with Jupiter harena sand; shore, beach harenosus sandy, full of sand Harpalyce Thracian princess, famous huntress and warrior harundo reed; arrow hasta spear, lance, javelin hastile spear-shaft, javelin-shaft haud not, not at all, by no means haurio drain, shed; pluck out, swallow, devour, consume Hebrus a river in Thrace Hecate goddess of the underworld Hector Troy’s champion, son of Hector Hectoreus of Hector Hecuba Priam’s wife herba grass, turf heres heir, successor heros hero, demigod Hesperia Western Land, Italy Hesperius western, Hesperian; Italian heu alas ! heus hey! ho! hibernus wintry, of winter hic adv. here hic, haec, hoc this, the latter hiems winter, winter time hinc from this place, hence; on either side homo person, human being, man honor honor, repute, esteem, distinction honos same as honor hora hour horrendus dreadful, terrible, fearful horrens bristly, shaggy, rough horreo stand on end, bristle; tremble, dread horresco rise on end, stand erect; shudder, tremble horridus terrible, wild, savage horror shaking, trembling, shudder; dread, terror, horror hortor urge, press, incite, encourage, exhort hospes host, guest, visitor, friend hospitium hospitality, friendship hospitus hospitable; strange, foreign hostia victim, sacrifice, sacrificial animal hostilis enemy’s, hostile hostis enemy, foe, stranger huc to this place, hither; to this point, so far humilis lowly, humble, needy, poor humo bury, inter humus earth, ground, soil hymenaeus wedding, marriage ceremony Hyrcanus people near the Caspian Sea iaceo lie, be prostrate, lie at rest iacio throw, hurl, scatter iacto throw out; consider, discuss; pronounce, utter, speak iaculor throw, hurl iam now, at this time, already; with a neg., longer, more iamdudum long since, long before, for some time now ianua door, entrance Iarbas king of the Gaetuli iaspis jasper (green precious stone) ibi there, in that place; thereupon ibidem in the same place Icarus Daedalus’ son (flew too high) ico strike, hit, stab, sting ictus blow, stab, cut, wound Ida mt. near Troy; also mt. in Crete idem the same ideo therefore, for that reason ignarus ignorant, inexperienced, unaware ignavus lazy, slothful, idle, sluggish igneus fiery, on fire, burning-hot ignis fire ignobilis unknown, undistinguished; of low birth, ignoble ignotus unknown, strange, unrecognized; unfamiliar ilex oak, holm-oak Ilia another name for Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus Iliacus of Ilium, Trojan Ilias a Trojan woman ilicet at once, immediately Ilioneus spokesman for the Trojans Ilium Troy Ilius of Ilium, Trojan ille that; he, she, it illic there, in that place illinc from that place, thence illuc to that place, thither Illyricus of Illyria, region east of the Adriatic Ilus Ascanius’ previous name; also an early king of Troy imago image; ghost, vision; reminder Imaon an Italian friend of Halaestus imbellis unwarlike, unfit for war imber rain; the sea, water immanis huge; monstrous, frightful immemor unmindful, heedless immensus immeasurable, boundless, huge immergo dip, immerse, submerge immineo overhang, command immitis rough, harsh, severe immitto send in, admit; let go, loose immolo sprinkle with sacrificial meal immotus motionless; unmoved, steadfast, firm impar uneven, unequal; overmatched impello strike against, strike, push; set in motion imperditus not destroyed, not slain imperium command, order; supreme power, sovereignty impius irreverent, wicked, impious implacabilis implacable, irreconcilable impleo fill, sate, satisfy implico entangle, entwine, embrace, grasp impono place upon, put on imprimo press upon, press against; emboss, engrave improbus wicked, shameless, bad improvidus off guard; reckless, careless impune without punishment, with impunity imus lowest, deepest, last in acc. into, to; against; abl. in, on, upon inanis useless, empty, meaningless incautus incautious, inconsiderate, heedless incedo advance, march, proceed incendo set fire to, burn; rouse, incite incertus unsettled, doubtful, uncertain incessus walking, pace, gait; step incesto pollute, defile incido incidere, incisus – cut into, cut through incido incidere – fall, sink, strike incipio begin includo shut up, confine, enclose inclutus famous, renowned incognitus unknown, untraced incubo lie upon, rest on; brood over, watch jealously over incultum wasteland, wilderness incumbo lean press; bend to; oppress incuso accuse, blame incutio strike into, inflict; produce indago surrounding, encircling inde from there, thence; thereafter indebitus not owed, not due indigena native, indigenous Indiges deified hero, patron deity indignor deem unworthy, despise, resent indignus unworthy, undeserving; shameful indulgeo concede, grant, allow induo put on assume; clothe, dress; pierce inermis unarmed, defenseless iners helpless, weak, unarmed inexpertus without experience, untested inextricabilis inextricable, not to be unraveled infabricatus unshaped, rough, unwrought infandus unspeakable, abominable infectus not one, unaccomplished infelix unfortunate, unlucky, miserable; barren infensus hostile, inimical inferior lower, further down; inferior infernus lower, under; underground infero bring to, carry in, wage; advance (refl.) infestus made unsafe, disturbed; hostile, dangerous infigo fasten, implant, affix; nail to inflammo set on fire, kindle; inflame, excite inflecto bend, bow, curb; change, affect, alter infrenus unbridled infundo pour in, pour upon; pour out, throw ingemino redouble, repeat, reiterate ingemo groan over, sigh at, lament, bewail ingens huge, vast, enormous; extraordinary ingredior advance, go forward; undertake inhio gape, gaze, gaze at inhospitus inhospitable inhumatus unburied inimicus hostile, unfriendly, hateful; damaging iniquus uneven; unequal; hurtful iniuria injustice, wrong; harsh treatment inlabor glide in; flow in, penetrate inlido dash against, push against innecto twist, entangle, weave; bind; contrive inno swim in, float upon; sail, navigate innuptus unmarried; a virgin inopinus unexpected inops helpless, weak inquit says, said inreparabilis irreparable, irretrievable inrito incite, excite, provoke inrumpo break in, burst into inruo rush in, invade insania madness, folly insanus insane, mad; outrageous, excessive inscribo inscribe; mark insequor follow after, come next; proceed, go on insidiae snare, trap; artifice insignis distinguished, remarkable, prominent insinuo creep in; penetrate, enter insomnium dream insono resound; crack inspicio look into, inspect; examine inspiro blow upon, inspire; instill instar image, likeness, in the form of instauro establish, ordain; renew; celebrate; refresh instituo put in place, fix, set; establish insto stand upon, take a position; press, pursue instruo draw up, array; prepare, equip insuetus unaccustomed, unused insula island insum be in, be upon insuper above, on top, overhead insuperabilis insurmountable, invincible insurgo rise up, pull (with oars) intactus untouched, undefiled intendo stretch out, extend; increase intento aim, direct, wield intentus attentive, intent, waiting, eager inter between, among interea meanwhile interfor interrupt interfundo flow between; pour between interimo take away; destroy, slay, kill interior inner, interior, middle interpres interpreter, explainer; mediator interrumpo break off, interrupt, break off intexo weave in, interweave intimus innermost, deepest, intimate intono thunder; resound, rattle; cry out intorqueo twist, wind about, wrench intra within, during intractabilis unmanageable, intractable intro go into, enter; penetrate intus inside, within, closer inultus unavenged inutilis useless, inexpedient invado enter; assault, attack, invade invalidus infirm, impotent, weak inveho carry in; ride into; drive over invenio find, meet with; discover invictus unconquered, unsubdued; inexorable invideo look askance at, envy; hinder, prevent invidia envy, grudge, jealousy inviso look after, visit invisus hated, hateful, detested invitus unwilling, reluctant invius impassable, insuperable; inaccessible involvo roll; cover, overwhelm; wrap, enfold, envelop Iovis Jove, Jupiter ipse himself, herself, itself ira anger, fury, hate Iris goddess of rainbow, also a messenger is, ea, id he, she it iste that (of yours) – often contemptuous ita thus, as follows, in that way Italia Italy Italus of Italy, Italian iter journey, passage, march, route, course iterum again, a second time, once more iuba mane; crest iubar radiance, light, splendor iubeo order, tell, command iudicium judgment, sentence iugalis yoked together; matrimonial; as noun - a team iugo marry, bind iugum yoke, collar; summit, ridge; bonds Iulius name of a Roman clan Iulus another name for Ascanius iungo join, unite, connect Iuno goddess of marriage; wife of Jupiter Iuppiter Jupiter, king of the gods iuro swear, take an oath; swear ius right, justice, duty iussus order, command, decree iustus just, righteous; fair Iuturna sister of Turnus iuvenalis youthful, juvenile iuvencus young bullock iuvenis young, youthful; as a noun – young person iuventa youth iuventus youth; the young, young people iuvo help, aid, assist, serve; delight iuxta near to, next to; in like manner Karthago Carthage, an ancient city in N. Africa labefacio shake, loosen labo totter, waver, shake labor laboris – labor, toil, exertion; suffering, hardship labor labi – slip, glide, slide, move; sink, fall lacrima tear lacrimo shed tears, weep lacus opening, lake laedo injure, hurt, wound, damage; insult laena mantle, shawl, cloak laetitia joy, happiness laetus joyous, happy, delighted; pleasant, grateful laevus left; unfavorable lambo lick, touch lamentabilis mournful, lamentable lamentum wailing, moaning, weeping, lamentation lampas light, torch, lamp languidus languid, dull, sluggish; faint, feeble Laocoon Trojan priest of Apollo lapis stone largior give bountifully, bestow, impart largus abundant, copious, plentiful; flood lassus faint, weary, tired latebra hiding-place, retreat lateo lie hid, be concealed; keep out of sight, escape notice Latini the people of Latium Latinus king of Latium, father of Lavinia Latium district in Italy south of the Tiber Latona mother of Diana and Apollo latus adj. broad, wide, extensive latus noun. side, flank laudo praise, honor, extol Laurens of Laurentum, a town in Latium laurus a bay tree, laurel tree laus praise, commendation, glory, fame Lausus son of Mezentius (Turnus’ Etruscan ally) Lavinia daughter of Latinus Lavinium town in Latium Lavinius of Lavinium laxo extend; open, loose, release; relieve, free laxus loose, open roomy; yielding legifer law-giving lego gather, collect, choose, pick; survey Lenaeus of Bacchus, god of wine lenio soften, mollify, soothe; appease, pacify lenis soft, smooth, mild, gentle lentus pliant, flexible; slow, lingering, lazy leo lion letalis deadly, fatal, mortal letum death, annihilation levis light, swift, quick; smooth levo lift, raise, elevate lex law, precept, regulation, principle libo taste, sip; pour out, offer as a libation libro poise, balance; brandish Liburni people of N. Illyria Libya region of N. Africa Libycus of Libya licet it is permitted, it is allowed lignum wood, firewood, timber ligo tie, bind lilium lily limbus border, hem, edge, fringe limen threshold, door; house, dwelling limes path, passage, road; boundary, limit lingua tongue, language linquo go away, leave, depart from, abandon liquidus fluid, liquid; clear, bright, transparent lito make an acceptable sacrifice litus seashore, beach lituus crooked staff; trumpet, cornet loco place, put, lay; establish locus place, spot; position longaevus aged, ancient longe far, far off; for a long period longus long, extended loquor speak, talk, say, tell; declare lorica coat of mail, leather cuirass lorum leather thong; pl. reins lubricus slippery, slimy Lucifer morning star luctor wrestle; struggle, contend luctor wrestle, struggle, strive, contend luctus sorrow, mourning, grief lucus sacred grove ludibrium plaything, sport ludo play; mock lumen light; pl. eyes luna moon lunatus half-moon shaped, crescent-shaped luo loose, wash away; atone for, expiate lupa she-wolf lustro review, observe, examine; illuminate lustrum period of five years; wood, forest wilderness lux light, brightness; pl. heavenly bodies luxus excess, indulgence, luxury; splendor, magnificence Lyaeus Greek name for Bacchus Lycia region in SW Asia Minor Lycius of Lycia Lycus friend of Aeneas Lydius of Lydia lympha water, clear water, spring water lynx lynx Machaon one of the Greek fighters at Troy machina machine, engine; device macto honor, glorify, extol; kill, slaughter; offer, sacrifice macula spot, mark, stain; blot maculosus spotted, speckled madeo be wet, drip, flow Maeonius of Maeonia, a province of Lydia; Lydian maereo mourn, grieve, lament maeror mourning, sadness, grief maestus sorrowful, dejected, despondent magalia huts mage more magis more magister master; pilot; captain magistratus magistrate, public official magnanimus great, high-minded magnus large, great, huge, mighty; important Maia Mercury’s mother, daughter of Atlas maiestas greatness, majesty malo prefer, rather malus evil, wicked bad; hostile mamma breast mandatum order, command, charge mando entrust, deliver; order, command maneo remain, stay manes departed spirit, ghost, shade manifestus clear, plain, apparent manus hand; band troop; handiwork Marcellus 1. Roman war hero 2. Son of Octavia mare sea maritus husband, married man marmor marble marmoreus of marble, marble Marpesius of Marpesia, a mt. in Paros Mars god of war Massyli the Massylians, a people of N. Africa mater mother; native land maternus maternal maturo hasten, hurry Maurusius of the Mauri, a people of N. Africa Mavors Mars Mavortius of Mars; warlike meatus motion, movement meditor consider, meditate, contemplate medius the middle of, middle medulla marrow mel honey membrum limb, member; pl. bodies memini remember, recollect Memnon king of Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Aurora memor mindful, remembering memorabilis memorable, remarkable memoro mention, recount, speak of, tell Menelaus king of Sparta, Helen’s husband mens mind, intellect; memory; feeling; heart mensa table; meal mensis month mentior lie, cheat, deceive, pretend; lie about mentum chin mercor trade, purchase, buy Mercurius messenger of the gods; son of Jupiter and Maia mereo deserve, merit, be entitled to mereor deserve, merit, be entitled to meritum merit, service, kindness, benefit meritus deserving, proper meta end, boundary, limit; goal, turning post metallum metal metuo fear, be afraid metus fear, dread, apprehension meus my, mine mico gleam, glitter, flash; shake tremble migro depart, remove, migrate, go away miles soldier milia thousands mille one thousand minae threats; pinnacles Minerva Roman name for Athena, goddess of household crafts ministro attend, serve; provide, furnish Minoius of Minos (king of Crete) minor project; threaten, menace Minotaurus the Minotaur, half man half bull minus less mirabilis wonderful, marvelous, amazing miror wonder, marvel at, be astonished mirus wonderful, marvelous, astonishing misceo mix, mingle, intermingle Misenus friend of Aeneas, a trumpeter miser wretched, miserable, poor, sad miserabilis miserable, pitiable misereor fell pity, have compassion miseror lament, commiserate; pity missilis that may be thrown; as noun – javelin, darts mitesco grow mild, be tamed, be civilized mitra headband mitto send, let go; throw; dismiss Mnestheus friend of Aeneas mobilitas activity, mobility modo merely, only; just now, lately modus measure; way, manner; method moenia walls, ramparts; walled city moles mass, weight; greatness; difficulty, labor, trouble molior exert, strive toil; build; rouse mollio soften, soothe; tame, restrain mollis yielding, soft, tender, gentle moneo advise, warn, admonish monimentum same as monumentum monitus warning, reminding, admonition mons mountain, hill; mass, heap monstro point out, exhibit, indicate, inform; urge, advise monstrum divine omen, portent; monster, a horrible sight monumentum monument, memorial; token, remembrance mora delay, procrastination; obstruction, hindrance moribundus dying, at the point of death morior die, expire; decay, wither moror delay, stay, remain, linger mors death morsus bite, biting mortalis mortal, transient mos practice, custom, habit; institution motus movement, motion; moved moveo move, remove, shake; excite, arouse, agitate mox soon, afterwards mugitus bellowing, lowing, mooing mulceo soothe, soften, caress, flatter multiplex manifold, far more; varied multus much; many (pl.); great, high, abundant munio fortify, build; guard, secure munus service, office; burial muralis of a wall, mural murex purple dye; sharp stone murmur murmur, roar, growling, grumbling, crash murus wall, city wall Musa a muse, one of the nine Muses muto change, transform; exchange Mycenae city of Argolis, where Agamemnon ruled Myrmidones Myrmidons, people of Thessaly nam for namque for narro tell relate, make known; describe, mention nascor be born, begin life; proceed nata daughter nato swim, float natus born, made, destined, intended; a son nauta sailor, mariner navigo sail navis ship ne not; do not; -ne – whether, or nebula mist, vapor, fog, smoke nec and not, also not; neither...nor necdum nor yet, and not yet nectar nectar, drink of the gods; honey necto bind, tie, fasten; join nefandus unspeakable, heinous, abominable nefas sin, crime, wickedness nego deny, say...not, refuse nemus wood, grove, forest Neoptolemus Pyrrhus, son of Achilles nepos grandson, descendant Neptunus Neptune, god of the sea neque same as nec, and not, also not; neither...nor nequiquam in vain, without reason nescio not know, be ignorant nescius ignorant, unaware neu and not, and that not, lest nexus death, murder, slaughter ni if not, unless, that not niger black, dark nigrans black, dark nihil nothing nimbus rain storm, black cloud; cloud nimium too much, too; greatly niteo shine, glitter nitidus shining, glittering, bright nitor lean, support oneself; strive; rely niveus snowy nix snow; white hair no swim, float; fly, sail nocturnus nocturnal, by night nodo tie in a knot nodus knot; impediment Nomas Numidian nomen name; title non not, by no means nondum not yet nos we, us nosco know, learn noster our; ours notus known, famous, customary Notus south wind; the winds novem nine novo make new, renew, renovate novus new, young, fresh; novel nox night; death noxa hurt, harm, injury nubes cloud, mist, vapor nubila clouds nudo lay bare, expose, uncover nudus naked, bare, unclothed; destitute nullus no, none; worthless; no one num interrogative particle expecting a no answer numen divinity, divine, power; a god or goddess numerus number, quantity Numidae Numidians, a people of N. Africa numquam never nunc now nuntia female messenger nuntio announce, declare, report nuntius messenger, reporter; message, report, command nurus daughter-in-law nusquam nowhere, in no place nutrimentum fuel, nourishment nutrix nurse, wet-nurse nympha nymph o O! oh! ob on account of, because of obeo go, go to meet; travel; engage in; surround obicio offer, present obiecto oppose; expose, endanger obiectus opposition; opposing obitus setting; downfall, ruin, death obliviscor forget obmutesco be silent; become silent obnitor struggle with, strain against oborior arise, appear, spring up obruo overwhelm; sink, submerge obscurus dark, shady, obscure; unknown observo watch, note; guard, observe obsido beset, besiege obstipesco become senseless, be struck dumb obsto oppose, stand in the way obstruo build up, block; stop, hinder, impede obtestor call as a witness, appeal to, implore obtutus gaze, contemplation obverto turn towards, face obvius in the way, meeting; against, opposite occasus downfall, destruction; falling, setting occido fall, perish; end, die occulo cover, conceal occulto hide, conceal occumbo die oceanus great sea, the ocean ocior swifter oculus eye odi hate, dislike odium hatred, ill-will odor smell, scent, odor odorus scented, fragrant offero present, offer, show Oileus father of Ajax oleo smell, emit a smell olim once, formerly; one day olle same as ille Olympus Mt. Olympus, home of the gods omen omen, sign, portent omnino completely, entirely omnipotens almighty, omnipotent omnis all, every, whole onero load, burden, fill, weigh down onus load, burden onustus loaded, burdened, laden opaco make shady, shade, provide shade opacus shady, shaded; pl. shady places operio cover, cover over opertum secret place opimus rich, abundant; spolia opima-arms won by a general from a general opperior wait, wait for, attend oppeto encounter; die oppono oppose; expose oppositus opposed, opposite opprimo press down, crush ops aid, help, assistance; means, wealth, resources opto choose, prefer opulentus wealthy, opulent opus work, labor toil; structure artistic work ora shore, coast; border, edge, rim orbis circle; world; shield Orcus god of the underworld; the underworld ordior begin, commence ordo row, line, series; line, rank; troop, company Oreas a mountain nymph orgia orgies, night festival of Bacchus Oriens dawn; east, the orient origo beginning, start, birth Orion a constellation orior rise, appear; be born, originate; rise, come forth ornus wild ash tree oro beg, plead; pray, beseech; speak Orontes friend of Aeneas Orpheus famous mythological bard ortus rising; sunrise os mouth; face, expression osculum kiss ostendo show, point out, display ostento exhibit, show; hold up ostium door; mouth, entrance ostrum purple otium leisure, free time; rest, repose, quiet ovo exult, rejoice, triumph pabulum food, food for cattle, fodder paciscor agree, stipulate; bind Pallas Greek goddess Athena Pallas ally of Aeneas, son of Evander palleo to grow pale, pale, blanch pallidus pale, colorless palma palm, flat hand; palm tree, palm palus swamp, marsh pando spread out, extend; open, lay open Paphos city in Cyprus par equal, even; well-balanced Parcae the Fates parco spare, use moderately; abstain, refrain parens parent pareo appear, be visible; obey, submit, comply pario give birth, produce; create, accomplish Paris Helen’s abductor; son of Priam paro prepare, arrange, make ready pars part, portion; side partior share, distribute, divide partus birth, delivery parum too little, insufficiently parvulus very small, little; young parvus small; short, brief pasco feed, nourish; graze Pasiphae wife of Minos and mother of the Minotaur passim spread, scattered, in every direction pastor shepherd, herdsman Patavium Patavium, the modern Padua patefacio lay open, throw open; disclose pateo be open, stand open pater father, sire patera bowl, saucer patesco be opened; stretch out, extend patior bear, support, suffer, endure patria native land, own country; home patrius fatherly; traditional pauci few paulum a little, somewhat pavidus trembling, fearful, timid pavor trembling, shaking, terror pax peace, reconciliation pectus breast, chest, heart pecus pecudis, f., a head of cattle, beast pecus pecoris, n., cattle; drones; flock pedes foot soldier pelagus sea Pelides son of Peleus, Achilles pellis hide, skin, pelt pello beat, strike, knock; drive out pelta light shield, half-moon shaped shield, pelt Penates household gods, gods of the state pendeo hang, be suspended; loiter pendo suspend, weigh; ponder, consider penetrabilis penetrable, piercing penetralia inner rooms, inner parts penetralis inward, inner penetro penetrate, enter; pierce penitus inwardly, deeply; thoroughly penna feather, plume; pl. wings Penthesilea queen of the Amazons peplum robe, mantle per through, along; throughout, during; by means of perago thrust through, pierce; review; accomplish peragro wander through, travel, pass through percutio strike through, pierce, transfix; slay, kill pereo perish, pass away, be destroyed pererro wander through, roam over; survey perfero bring home; reach the mark; carry, bring; report; bear perficio accomplish, achieve; execute, complete perfidus dishonest, treacherous, perfidious perflo blow over, blow through perforo bore through, pierce, perforate perfundo pour over, drench; scatter over, besprinkle Pergama Troy Pergameus Trojan pergo proceed, go on, hasten perhibeo bring forward; say, assert; call, name periculum danger, peril, risk perimo annihilate, destroy, prevent Periphas a Greek perlabor slip through, glide over perlego examine thoroughly, survey, peruse permisceo mix together, mix thoroughly; mingle permitto hand over, entrust, surrender; allow pernix nimble, swift; persistent perpetuus continuous, unbroken; forever perrumpo break through, force a way through persentio feel deeply; perceive clearly persolvo unravel, solve; render thanks; fulfill persono resound, reecho pertaedet it wearies, disgusts, makes sick pertempto prove thoroughly, test; try severely, overwhelm perterritus terrified pervenio reach, arrive; attain pes foot; sheet pestis destruction, ruin, plague; curse, bane peto seek, aim at; attack; scan phalanx phalanx, compact armed formation, battalion pharetra quiver Phoebeus of Phoebus (Apollo) Phoebus Apollo Phoenices Phoenicians Phoenissa of Phoenicia; as noun - Dido Phoenix Greek leader Phryges Trojans, Phrygians Phrygius Phrygian, Trojan Phthia district of Thessaly piaculum offering, sacrifice; remedy picea pitch-pine, pine pictura painting, picture pietas devotion, dutiful conduct, sense of duty piget it irks, pains, grieves pineus piney, pine pingo paint, represent, depict pinguis fat, juicy pinifer pine-bearing pinna feather, plume piscosus full of fish pius devoted, dutiful, devout, conscientious placeo please, give pleasure; impers. it is agreed placidus calm, gentle, quiet placo soothe, assuage, appease, reconcile plaga region; net, snare plangor striking, beating planta sprout, shoot; sole, sole of the foot plenus full, filled pluma feather, plume plus more, in greater number poena penalty, punishment Poeni Carthaginians Polites son of Priam polliceor promise, offer Pollux half brother of Castor, son of Jupiter and Leda polus pole; sky, heavens pondus weight, consequence, load pone behind pono put, place; establish; lay down pontus sea poples knee populo lay waste, ravage; destroy, ruin, mutilate populus people, nation porta door, gate; avenue, entrance, outlet porticus colonnade, arcade, gallery, portico porto carry, bear portus port, harbor posco ask, beg, demand, request possum be able, can post after, behind; afterwards posterus following, next; after; last posthabeo place after, esteem less postis post, doorpost; door postquam after, when potens powerful, mighty; ruling potior acquire, take possession of, have, hold potius rather, preferable, more praeceps headlong, in haste praecipio obtain beforehand, anticipate; advise, admonish praecipito throw down; rush, sink rapidly, drop praecipuus special, chief, excellent, distinguished praeclarus famous; bright, brilliant, excellent praecordia breast, heart praeda plunder, pillage, booty, spoil praeficio put in charge, appoint praefixus tipped, pointed praemitto send ahead praemium reward; advantage; prize praepes of good omen, favorable; a bird of good omen; swift praeruptus broken off, steep, rugged praesaepe hive praescius prescient, foreknowing praesens present, in person; prompt, efficacious praesentio feel beforehand, presage, perceive in advance praesideo be in charge, guard, watch, preside praestans superior, excellent, distinguished, extraordinary praesto stand out, be superior, it is better praetendo hold out, extend, present; simulate, pretend praeterea besides, moreover praetereo to go by, go past, pass by; go beyond, outstrip praeterlabor glide by, flow by praetexo weave; cover, conceal praeverto go before, outrun; anticipate, prevent pravus crooked, distorted, deformed; improper, wrong precor ask, beg, entreat, request premo press, pursue; overpower; bury; conceal; restrain prendo grasp, snatch, seize; hold, stop pretium price, value, worth prex prayer, request Priamus Priam, king of Troy primus first; chief, excellent princeps leader, chief, founder, originator principium beginning, origin prior former, previous, prior, first priscus ancient, former, of old pristinus early, original, pristine prius before, sooner, first, previously priusquam before pro for; before, on account of; instead of probo approve commend; recommend, show; prove procedo go forward, proceed; advance, elapse procella violent wind, storm, procul in the distance, far, from afar procumbo fall forwards, fall prostrate prodeo go forth, come forward; advance prodo produce, propagate; report; reveal produco lead forward; bring forth, produce proelium battle, combat proficiscor set out, depart, march profor speak out, speak profugus fugitive; banished, exiled profundus deep, profound; of the underworld, infernal progenies descent, lineage, race, family; descendants progigno beget, bear, bring forth progredior go forward, advance; progress prolabor glide forward, slide along, slip proles offspring, children, descendants promereor deserve, merit, earn, be worthy promitto promise, hold out, assure, expect promo take out, give out, produce pronuba bride’s attendant pronus bent over, leaning; rushing; prone propago offspring, descendant propero hurry, hasten, move quickly propior closer, nearer proprius special, peculiar, individual; lasting propter on account of, because of propugnaculum rampart, fortress, protection prora prow, bow prorumpo break out, rush forth, attack, burst prosequor pursue, follow up, chase Proserpina wife of Pluto and queen of the underworld prospectus view, prospect prospicio look forward, look out, look, see, discern protendo extend, reach out, lift protinus forward, onward; continuously, without pause proveho move along, advance, lead on, proceed proximus nearest, closest; next pubes young men; groin pudor decency, modesty, propriety; shame puella girl puer boy pugna fight, battle pugno fight, combat, contend pugnus fist pulcher beautiful, handsome; fine, noble pulso strike, beat, hammer, batter pulverulentus dusty, covered with dust pulvis dust, powder Punicus Punic, Carthaginian puppis stern, poop; ship purpureus purple, dark red puto think, consider, regard; judge, believe Pygmalion Dido’s brother Pyrrhus Achilles’ son qua where? how? in any way quaero seek, look for, ask for qualis what sort?; of such a kind, such as quam how, how much; than quamquam although, however quando when? quantum as much as, so much as quantus of what size, how much, as quasso shake violently; shatter, batter quater four times que enclitic, and quercus oak, oak tree querela complaint, accusation queror express grief, complain, lament qui who, which; what; that quia because quicumque whoever, whatever, whosoever quidem indeed, in fact quies rest, repose, peace quiesco rest, repose, keep quiet quietus at rest, inactive, in repose quin why not?; but, indeed quinquaginta fifty quippe of course, obviously; indeed Quirinus another name for Romulus quis who? what? quisquam any, anyone quisque whoever, whatever; each one everyone quisquis whoever, whatever; everyone who quo where; at which time quod because; that, in that; wherefore quondam once, at some time, at one time; sometimes quoniam since, because, whereas quoque also, too quot how many? quotannis every year, annually, yearly quotiens how often?; as often as rabidus raving, mad, enraged; inspired rabies rage, madness, frenzy; anger, fury radius staff, rod; a geometer’s rod; beam, ray radix root, foundation ramus branch, bough, twig rapidus fierce; rushing, swift rapio seize, snatch, tear, pluck; drive rapto snatch, drag, hurry away rarus loose, with large mesh; scattered, dispersed ratio reason; account, calculation; course, conduct ratis raft, boat raucus hoarse; ringing; hollow-sounding rebellis insurgent, rebellious recedo fall back, withdraw, recede recens fresh, young, recent recidivus falling back; rising again recipio receive, take back; recover, rescue recludo open, disclose, reveal; draw recondo put back, put away; plunge rectus right, correct; direct, straight recurso return persistently, keep recurring recutio shake again, shock reddo drive back, restore; reply, answer redeo go back, return redimo buy back, redeem, ransom; release reditus return, returning; circuit redoleo emit scent, smell of, be redolent of; breathe, exhale reduco lead back, bring back refello disprove, refute, repel, expose refero bring back, carry back; recall, speak, say reflecto bend back, turn back refringo break up, break open refugio flee back, escape, avoid refulgeo flash back, glitter, glisten refundo pour back, make flow back regina queen regio region, area; direction; boundary line regius royal, regal, kingly regnator ruler, sovereign regno rule, reign, govern regnum kingdom; royalty rego rule, control; direct, guide reicio throw back, hurl back relinquo leave, abandon, relinquish reliquiae remainders, remnants remigium rowing, oarage remitto send back, drive back; loosen, relax; give up remordeo bite again; vex, torment removeo move back, drive away, remove remugio bellow back; resound remus oar Remus Romulus’s brother renovo renew, restore; repeat reor think, believe, suppose repello drive back, drive away, repel rependo ransom; repay; balance reperio find again, find, discover repertor discoverer, inventor (Jupiter) repeto attack again; seek again, demand back; retake, recall repleo fill again, refill, fill up repono put back, restore; stretch out; lay aside, store reprimo keep back, check, curb, restrain, refrain requies rest, repose, respite requiro seek again, search for; demand; require res thing, incident, matter; state; pl. exploits, world reservo keep back, save up, reserve resido sit down, settle; subside resigno unseal, open; reveal resisto remain, continue; oppose, resist resolvo loosen, release, relax; dispel resono resound, ring respicio look back, gaze at, look for respondeo reply, respond, answer responsum reply, answer, response; advice resto withstand, resist, oppose; remain resupinus bent back, lying on the back resurgo rise again, appear again rete net retego uncover, bare, open; disclose, reveal retorqueo twist back, turn back; change, alter retracto undertake anew; consider; withdraw retro backward, back; formerly revello pull away, tear off; violate reverto turn back, return reviso look back; revisit revoco recall, call again revolvo revolve, turn again; unroll, repeat; return rex king Rhesus Thracian leader rideo laugh; ridicule rigeo be stiff, stiffen; bristle, harden rima crack, fissure ripa bank, margin rite solemnly, ceremonially; rightly, fitly ritus ceremony, rite robur hardwood, oak; tree trunk; oak tree rogus funeral pyre Roma Rome Romanus Roman Romulus first king and founder of Rome roscidus wet with dew, dewy; moistened roseus rose-colored, ruddy rota wheel; chariot rudens roaring, bellowing ruina fall, crash, ruin rumor rumor, report; murmur rumpo break, burst, rupture; break through ruo rush, hurry; fall down, tumble rupes rock, cliff rursus again, in turn rus the country, fields Rutuli Rutulians, Turnus’ tribe Sabaeus Sabaean (Arabian group) sacer holy, sacred sacerdos priest, priestess sacra sacrifices sacro consecrate, dedicate, devote saeculum generation, age; a lifetime saepe often, frequently saepio hedge in, enclose, encircle; surround; protect saevio rage, rave saevus savage, fierce, ferocious; terrible sagitta arrow, shaft sal salt water, the sea saltem at least, at all events, anyhow saltus leap, leaping; forest, woodland salum the open sea, the deep salus health, welfare, prosperity; greeting Samos island off Asia Minor sanctus holy, sacred; revered sanguineus bloody, blood-red sanguis blood; bloodshed, slaughter sanies gore, bloody matter sanus whole, healthy, well; sober, sane Sarpedon ally of the Trojans, Lycian king sat enough, sufficient, adequate sator father, creator Saturnius of Saturn, Saturnian Saturnus Saturn, father of Jupiter, king of Latium saucius wounded, hurt, injured saxum large stone, boulder, rock scaena stage, scene; theater; space scando climb, rise, ascend sceleratus polluted, profaned; wicked, impious scelero pollute, defile, desecrate scelus wicked deed, crime, sin, wickedness sceptrum scepter; kingdom, rule, authority scilicet to be sure, indeed scindo cut, tear, rend, split, divide scintilla spark, glimmer, trace scio know, understand scopulus rock, cliff, crag, ledge scutum shield, protection, defense Scyllaea of Scylla Scyrius of Scyros (an Aegean island) se himself, herself, itself, themselves secessus separation; ravine, hiding-place seco cut, reap, carve; operate, divide secretum mystery, hidden thing, secret secundus favorable; second securis ax, hatchet securus carefree, composed; cheerful, serene secus otherwise, differently sed but sedeo sit; hold court sedes seat, dwelling-place; foundation sedile seat, bench, stool, chair seditio insurrection, mutiny; dissension, quarrel seduco take apart, lead away; divide, part segnis slow, tardy, slack; sluggish semen seed, beginning; cause semianimis half-alive, half-dead seminex half-dead semino sow; produce semita path, lane semivirus half-man; effeminate, unmanly semper always, ever, continually senatus senate senecta old age, senility senex old, aged seni six each senior older sensus observation, feeling, sensation; way of thinking sententia opinion, judgment, decision sentio perceive, note; understand sentus thorny, rough sepelio bury; place on a funeral pyre; destroy, suppress septem seven septemplex sevenfold septeni seven each sepulchrum burial place, tomb, grave sequor follow, pursue; accompany sereno calm, make clear serenus calm, clear Serestus friend of Aeneas Sergestus friend of Aeneas sermo speech, conversation; talk, report, rumor sero engage; sire, produce serpens snake, serpent serpo crawl, creep; creep in sertum garland, wreath servio serve, work for servitium slavery, bondage servo save, guard, keep sese same as se – himself, herself, itself, themselves seu or, or if; whether...or (same as sive) sex six si if, when sibilus hissing Sibylla Sibyl, prophetess sic thus, in this way sicco dry; mild dry siccus dry; thirsty Siculus of Sicily; Sicilian sido perch, settle, sit down Sidonius of Sidon sidus constellation, group of stars; the sky, heaven signum sign, indication; standard; figure silentium silence, stillness sileo be silent, be still; suppress silex flint, granite silva wood, forest similis similar, like, resembling Simois river near Troy simul at the same time, simultaneously simulacrum likeness, image, statue simulo pretend, feign simulate sin but if sine without singuli one at a time, single; separate sino allow, permit Sinon the Greek who tricks the Trojans sinuo curve, bend sinus bay; fold; bosom sisto set, set up, fix, plant; present; halt, stay sitis thirst; drought situs position, spot, place; neglect sive whether; or if socio associate; bind, unite socius friend, comrade, ally sol sun solamen solace, consolation, comfort soleo be accustomed; (usually) solidus undivided, whole, complete; trustworthy solium throne; seat sollemnis solemn; sacred; accustomed sollicito disturb, bother, trouble solor console oneself for; cheer, comfort solum ground, base, foundation solus alone, only, single, sole solvo loosen, relax; release, unfurl; dispel, dismiss somnus sleep, slumber sonipes charger, steed sonitus sound, noise, din sono resound, make a noise; speak, express sonorus howling, roaring, resounding sopor slumber, deep sleep soror sister sors fate, lot; prophecy; destiny, fortune sortior cast lots, draw lots; share, divide; choose spargo scatter, sprinkle, strew Spartanus Spartan spatior walk, wander around spatium space, room; level; path species sight, appearance; spectacle; resemblance spectaculum sight, spectacle spectator spectator specula lookout, watchtower speculor watch, keep watch; observe spelunca cave sperno scorn, disdain; reject spero hope, look for, expect spes hope spira fold, coil spiritus spirit, soul; breath spiro breathe spolio strip, uncover, bare; rob, plunder spolium pl. arms stripped from an enemy; booty spons free will, accord; abl. freely, willingly spuma spray, froth, foam spumeus foamy spumo foam, froth spumosus foaming, foamy squaleo be filthy squameus scaly stabilis firm, steady, stable, fixed; firm, lasting stabulum stall, stable; lair stagnum swamp, standing water statio resting place; anchorage statuo set up, station; construct, build stellatus studded; gleaming sterno spread out; overthrow, level, flatten Sthenelus Diomedes’ charioteer stimulus spur stimulo spur; prick, goad on stipes trunk stipo press, pack; fill, cram, stuff stirps stem; lineage sto stand; be built; linger, remain stratum covering; bed, couch strepitus din, clash, rustle, clatter strideo make a harsh noise, hiss stridor shrill sound, creak, grating, rattle stringo graze, trim, strip struo place together, heap up; prepare, devise studium desire, exertion, endeavor; pursuit stupeo be stunned, be amazed; wonder at stuppeus hempen, made of hemp Stygius of the Styx (river in the underworld) Styx river of the underworld suadeo advise, exhort, urge, persuade sub under, beneath; at the foot of; acc. to, toward subeo go under, enter; come up, advance; support; follow subicio place under; set up, mount; ascribe subigo drive on, propel; force subito suddenly, immediately, at once sublimis lofty, high, exalted; on high, lofty; eminent submergo dip, plunge under, sink submitto put down, lower; moderate; humble, yield subnecto tie under, fasten beneath subnixus leaning on; supported by suboles child; offspring subrideo smile subrigo lift, raise subsido settle down, subside subsisto halt, take a stand, stop; oppose subter beneath, under subtraho withdraw; pass. fly beneath subvolvo roll up succedo go below, enter; ascend; succeed; approach; take up successus success succingo gird; equip succumbo yield to, fall under succurro help, relieve; succour suffero submit to, under, suffer sufficio suffuse, tinge; supply; be sufficient suffundo pour in; suffuse sulcus furrow; trench sum be summus uppermost, highest; loftiest, supreme sumo take, lay hold of, assume; undertake; inflict super above, over, on top of superbus proud, arrogant, insolent superemineo surpass, tower over superi the gods supero surpass, transcend; remain; excel, be superior superstitio superstition, dread of the supernatural supersum survive; remain; suffice superus upper, higher supinus lying on one’s back supplex suppliant, beseeching, entreating suppliciter humbly, suppliantly supplicium punishment, penalty suppono apply; put under supra above, over supremum for the last time sura calf; leg surgo rise, get up, stand up; ascend suscipio take, catch, take up; have, get; undertake, undergo suspendo hand, suspend suspicio look up at, admire; suspect suspiro sigh suus his, her, its, their Sychaeus Dido’s husband (slain by Pygmalion) Syrtis Syrtis (shallow sandy bays on the coast of Africa) tabeo be drenched tabula board, plank taceo be silent, say nothing tacitus secret, unmentioned, silent taeda torch; nuptial torch talaria sandals talis such, of such a kind tam so, so very tamen however, nevertheless, still tandem at last, finally; pray now tango touch; border on, reach tantum so much, so greatly tantus so great, so much, such Tartara Tartarus, the underworld taurinus a bull’s; of a bull taurus bull; bullock tectum house, dwelling; roof; tegmen covering, cover tego cover, cover over, hide; shelter; dissemble, keep secret tellus earth, globe, land, ground; personified Earth telum spear, shaft, javelin; weapon tempero restrain oneself, abstain, keep from; soothe tempestas storm, tempest; disturbance; multitude templum temple, sanctuary, shrine tempto try, attempt; tempt tempus time; occasion, opportunity tenax tenacious, griping, clinging tendo stretch, extend; present; aim; exert, strive tenebrosus dark, gloomy Tenedos island near Troy teneo hold, keep, have; occupy; hold back, detain; reach tentorium tent tenuis slim, thin; little, slight; low tenus up to, as far as ter three times, thrice terebro bore into, pierce teres smooth, polished tergum back, rear; hide, leather termino end; limit ternus triple tero graze, touch; wear away, waste terra earth, land, soil; personified Earth terreo frighten, terrify terribilis dreadful, fearful terrifico terrify territo terrify, frighten tertius third testor call to witness; swear by testudo tortoise shell; roof tete intensive form of te Teucer 1. first Trojan king 2. half brother of Ajax Teucri Trojans Teucria Troy thalamus inner room, chamber; marriage bed theatrum theater thesaurus treasure Theseus king of Athens Thessandrus Greek warrior at Troy Thoas Greek warrior at Troy Threicius Thracian, of Thrace Threissa a Thracian woman Thybris Tiber River Thyias Bacchant, Thyiad Thymoetes a Trojan thymum thyme Tiberinus of the Tiber tigris tigress, tiger Timavus river in northeastern Italy timeo fear, be afraid of timor fear, dread, anxiety Titan Titan, name given to the god of the sun togatus wearing a toga tollo lift, raise; erect; extol, exalt tonitrus thunder tormentum machine for hurling torqueo twist, bend, turn torreo roast torus sofa, couch, bed torvus stern, grim tot so many, such a number of totidem just so many, just as many totiens so often, as often totus entire, all, whole trabs beam, timber, rafter tractabilis tangible, manageable, yielding traho draw, drag; lead, bring; sweep along; spend, prolong traicio throw across; strike; pass through, penetrate trano fly over; swim across tranquillus calm, tranquil transeo go across, go over; pass by transfero carry across; transfer transfigo pierce transmitto send across; transfer transverbero transfix tremefactus shaken tremesco tremble, quake, shudder tremo tremble, shake, quake tremor trembling trepido tremble, shake trepidus restless, agitated, anxious tres three tridens with three teeth; trident trietericus biennial (triennial in Roman system) triginta thirty Trinacrius Sicilian tristis sad, sorrowful, dejected; dismal, gloomy trisulcus three-forked Triton sea-god, son of Neptune triumphus triumph Trivia another name for Diana Troia Troy Troianus Trojan Troilus one of Priam’s sons Troius Trojan Tros Trojan trucido kill, butcher trudo push truncus body, trunk trux harsh, fierce, wild tu you tueor look at, behold, watch; keep in mind; care for tum then, at that time, in those times; further tumeo swell, be swollen tumidus swollen, tumid; puffing up tumultus uproar, commotion, disturbance, tumult tumulus sepulchral mound, grave; heap of earth tunc the tundo beat, strike, thump; pound, bruise; stun turba uproar, commotion; crowd, throng turbidus confused, disordered; troubled, violent turbo turbinis, m. whirlind, tornado turbo turbare – disturb, make an uproar Turnus leader of the Rutulians, Aeneas’s enemy turpis ugly; filthy, disgraceful turris tower, citadel tus incense tutus safe, secure tuus your Tydides son of Tydeus=Diomedes tyrannus tyrant Tyrius Tyrian, of Tyre Tyros Tyre Tyrrhenus Tyrrhenian uber rich ubi where?; where, when ubique everywhere, anywhere ulciscor avenge Ulixes Ulysses (Odysseus) ullus any, any one ulterior farther, more remote ultimus last; furthest ultra beyond, on the other side ultro on the other side, beyond ululatus wailing, howling ululo howl, yell, wail umbo boss umbra shadow, shade umbrifer shade-giving umecto moisten, wet umens moist, dewy, wet umerus shoulder, upper arm umidus dewy, watery umquam ever una at once, together, at the same time unanimus sympathizing, agreeing uncus hooked, crooked unda wave unde from which place, whence undique from all parts, on all sides, all around undosus billowy unguis fingernail unguo smear, anoint unus one, only, alone urbs city urgeo press, force, urge; drive urna urn uro burn usquam anywhere, any place usus use ut how?; as, when uterque each, either, each one; pl. both uterus womb; belly uti how?; as, when utor use, profit; spend; perform, practice uxorius uxorious, devoted to one’s wife vacca cow vaco be free vacuus empty, vacant, clear; free, free from vado go, walk vadum shallow place, ford vagina sheath vagor wander, roam; spread valeo be well, be strong; say goodbye validus strong, powerful, robust valles valley, vale vanus empty, void; fruitless; false, deceptive varius various, variegated; changing, variable; fickle vasto pillage vastus unoccupied; vast, immense, huge vates seer, prophet ve enclitic – or, or if you will veho carry, bear; bring, usher in vel or, or indeed; certainly velivolus sail-winged vello tear, pluck velo cover, wrap velox swift velum sail velut just as, even as, like vena vein, artery; pl. heart venabulum hunting spear venatrix huntress vendo sell venenum poison; drug venia indulgence, kindness, favor; permission venio come, arrive; go venor hunt ventus wind Venus goddess of Love, Aeneas’s mother verbum word vereor fear vero in fact, in truth, truly verro sweep verso whirl vertex whirlpool, vortex verto turn, direct, change; twist; destroy verus true, real, actual, genuine Vesper the evening star Vesta goddess of the hearth vester your vestibulum entrance vestigium step, footprint, track; trace, mark, vestige vestigo search vestis clothing, attire, garments veto forbid vetus old, aged via way, road, path; method, mode vibro shake, brandish, wield; glimmer, gleam vicissim in turn victor winner, victor, conqueror victus food video see, perceive; understand; pass. seem, appear vigeo thrive vigil awake, alert; watchful, restless vimen twig, stem vincio bind, tie, fasten vinco conquer, overcome, defeat; banish vinculum chain, rope, fetter; bond vindico claim; rescue vinum wine violo injure, dishonor; violate vir man, male vireo be green virga wand; branch, twig virgo young woman, virgin viridis green virtus strength, courage, excellence; character, virtue vis force, violence; pl. strength viscum mistletoe viscus flesh; organs visus sight, vision; appearance vita life vitalis vital, of life vitta band, fillet, braid vivo live, be alive; linger vivus alive, living vix scarcely, barely; just voco call, name; invite; invoke volatilis winged volo velle - wish, want, desire volo volare - fly volucer winged, flying volumen coil; fold voluntas will, wish, choice, desire; purpose voluto roll, turn; weigh, ponder, consider volvo turn, roll; ordain, decree; glide voro swallow vos you vosmet emphatic form of vos votum vow, solemn pledge; a votive offering voveo vow vox voice, cry, call; word, saying vulgo make known, spread abroad vulgus crowd, throng; rabble vulnus wound, injury vultus face, appearance; expression Xanthus river near Troy Zephyrus west wind WORDS OCCURRING FIFTEEN TIMES OR MORE

a, ab from, away from, by ac same as atque – and, and also ad to, toward, near, at, by Aeneas hero of the Aeneid agmen army (on the march), column, train, formation, rank, line aliquis someone, anyone alius another, other, else altus high, lofty; deep, profound; as noun altum – the sea, heaven amor love, affection, fondness; as person - Cupid animus soul, spirit, heart, courage, daring, feeling ante before, in front of, previously ara altar arma arms, weapons; tools, equipment arx citadel, fortress, stronghold; hill, peak at but; yet, at least atque and, and also; but, than aura air, breeze, wind, blast aurum gold aut or; aut…aut= either…or bellum war caelum sky, heaven, the heavens caput head, the summit, person circum around, all around classis fleet, division coniunx spouse, husband, wife corpus body cum prep. with, conjunction when, since, although cura anxiety, distress, care, concern de from, away from, down from; concerning, according to dea goddess deus god, deity dexter right, to the right; skillful dico dicere - say, speak, sing, describe, name dictum assertion, remark, saying Dido queen of Carthage divus of a deity, godlike, divine do give, appoint; grant, bestow; emit, utter domus house, home, dwelling, building duco lead, lead away, guide, conduct, prolong; choose dum while; with subjunctive=until e, ex out of, from; of; since; according to ego I eo go, walk, ride, sail, move et and, also fama report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition fatum prediction; fate fero bring, carry, bear, wear; report; offer ferrum iron; iron tool; sword flamma flame, blaze; flame of passion; for speak, say; prophesy gens race, clan; descendant, offspring hic adv. here hic, haec, hoc this, the latter hinc from this place, hence; on either side hostis enemy, foe, stranger iam now, at this time, already; with a neg., longer, more ignis fire ille, illa, illud that; he, she, it in acc. into, to; against; abl. in, on, upon ingens huge, vast, enormous; extraordinary inter between, among ipse himself, herself, itself Italia Italy iubeo order, tell, command Iuno goddess of marriage; wife of Jupiter labor noun – labor, toil, exertion; suffering, hardship lacrima tear latus adj. broad, wide, extensive limen threshold, door; house, dwelling litus seashore, beach locus place, spot; position longus long, extended magnus large, great, huge, mighty; important manus hand; band troop; handiwork medius the middle of, middle mens mind, intellect; memory; feeling; heart meus my, mine miser wretched, miserable, poor, sad moenia walls, ramparts; walled city multus much; many (pl.); great, high, abundant natus born, made, destined, intended; a son ne not; do not; -ne – whether, or nec and not, also not; neither...nor non not, by no means noster our; ours nox night; death nunc now o O! oh! oculus eye omnis all, every, whole ora shore, coast; border, edge, rim oro beg, plead; pray, beseech; speak os mouth; face, expression pars part, portion; side pater father, sire pectus breast, chest, heart per through, along; throughout, during; by means of peto seek, aim at; attack; scan possum be able, can premo press, pursue; overpower; bury; conceal; restrain Priamus Priam, king of Troy primus first; chief, excellent que enclitic, and qui who, which; what; that quis who? what? refero bring back, carry back; recall, speak, say regina queen regnum kingdom; royalty res thing, incident, matter; state; pl. exploits, world rex king sanguis blood; bloodshed, slaughter se himself, herself, itself, themselves sed but sequor follow, pursue; accompany si if, when sic thus, in this way socius friend, comrade, ally soror sister sto stand; be built; linger, remain sub under, beneath; at the foot of; acc. to, toward sum be summus uppermost, highest; loftiest, supreme suus his, her, its, their talis such, of such a kind tandem at last, finally; pray now tantus so great, so much, such tectum house, dwelling; roof; telum spear, shaft, javelin; weapon teneo hold, keep, have; occupy; hold back, detain; reach terra earth, land, soil Teucri Trojans tot so many, such a number of totus entire, all, whole Troia Troy tu you tum then, at that time, in those times; further Turnus leader of the Rutulians, Aeneas’s enemy tuus your ubi where?; where, when umbra shadow, shade unda wave unus one, only, alone urbs city ut how?; as, when ve enclitic – or, or if you will venio come, arrive; go ventus wind via way, road, path; method, mode video see, perceive; understand; pass. seem, appear vir man, male vis force, violence; pl. strength voco call, name; invite; invoke volvo turn, roll; ordain, decree; glide vox voice, cry, call; word, saying vulnus wound, injury

WORDS OCCURRING 9-14 TIMES

Achilles greatest of the Greek heroes at Troy aequor the sea, surface of the sea, a level surface aequus even, level, just, fair ago drive, do, pursue, conduct imp – Come! ait says, asserts ardeo be on fire, burn, blaze arvum plowed land, cultivated field, field ater black, dark, sable, dusky; gloomy audeo dare, venture, risk audio hear, listen to averto turn away, avert, remove bis twice, double capio seize, grasp, capture casus fall, falling-down, ruin, failure causa cause, reason, motive cavus hollow, excavated centum 100 cerno separate, distinguish, discern, perceive cingo equip, gird oneself; surround, encircle clamor shout comes friend, companion, comrade condo found, establish, build contra against, opposite, facing corripio seize, snatch, grasp; attack credo believe, trust, confide in crudelis cruel, unfeeling, hard cursus running course, a run, journey Danaus of Danaus (famous Greek king) pl. the Greeks dies day dolor pain, suffering, anguish, distress, grief, trouble donum gift, present dulcis sweet, agreeable, delightful, agreeable durus hard, harsh, vigorous; pitiless, unyielding enim for, namely, that is to say equidem indeed, truly equus horse eripio tear out, wrest, pluck tear; rescue deliver, free erro wander, stray, roam; be in error etiam also, too, even; still extremus outermost, utmost, farthest; remotest; tip facio make, do, produce, build finis end, boundary, limit; pl. territory fluctus wave, tide, billow, surge fors chance, luck, fortune fortis brave, strong, courageous fortuna fortune, chance, luck fuga flight, rapid motion fugio flee, run away, escape fundo fundere – pour, pour out, shed; spread furo rage, rave, be out of one’s mind furor raving, rage, madness, fury, passion gemitus groan, sighing, complaint genitor father genus race, stock, family; birth, noble birth; descendant gravis heavy, weighty, burdened haud not, not at all, by no means heu alas ! homo person, human being, man iacto throw out; consider, discuss; pronounce, utter, speak idem the same imago image; ghost, vision; reminder immanis huge; monstrous, frightful imperium command, order; supreme power, sovereignty imus lowest, deepest, last incipio begin insto stand upon, take a position; press, pursue interea meanwhile Iovis Jove, Jupiter ira anger, fury, hate iungo join, unite, connect laetus joyous, happy, delighted; pleasant, grateful Latium district in Italy south of the Tiber lego gather, collect, choose, pick; survey lumen light; pl. eyes malus evil, wicked bad; hostile maneo remain, stay mare sea metus fear, dread, apprehension misceo mix, mingle, intermingle mitto send, let go; throw; dismiss mons mountain, hill; mass, heap morior die, expire; decay, wither mors death murus wall, city wall namque for navis ship neque same as nec, and not, also not; neither...nor nomen name; title nos we, us notus known, famous, customary novus new, young, fresh; novel nubes cloud, mist, vapor numen divinity, divine, power; a god or goddess opus work, labor toil; structure artistic work orbis circle; world; shield Pallas ally of Aeneas, son of Evander parens parent paro prepare, arrange, make ready pelagus sea pono put, place; establish; lay down populus people, nation porta door, gate; avenue, entrance, outlet pro for; before, on account of; instead of puer boy pulcher beautiful, handsome; fine, noble puppis stern, poop; ship quaero seek, look for, ask for qualis what sort?; of such a kind, such as quam how, how much; than rapio seize, snatch, tear, pluck; drive reddo drive back, restore; reply, answer relinquo leave, abandon, relinquish Romanus Roman ruo rush, hurry; fall down, tumble sacer holy, sacred saevus savage, fierce, ferocious; terrible saxum large stone, boulder, rock scopulus rock, cliff, crag, ledge sedes seat, dwelling-place; foundation sese same as se – himself, herself, itself, themselves sidus constellation, group of stars; the sky, heaven silva wood, forest solus alone, only, single, sole somnus sleep, slumber sors fate, lot; prophecy; destiny, fortune spes hope spolium pl. arms stripped from an enemy; booty subeo go under, enter; come up, advance; support; follow super above, over, on top of supplex suppliant, beseeching, entreating surgo rise, get up, stand up; ascend tamen however, nevertheless, still tantum so much, so greatly tellus earth, globe, land, ground templum temple, sanctuary, shrine tempus time; occasion, opportunity tendo stretch, extend; present; aim; exert, strive tergum back, rear; hide, leather tollo lift, raise; erect; extol, exalt Troianus Trojan turbo turbare – disturb, make an uproar Tyrius Tyrian, of Tyre ullus any, any one umerus shoulder, upper arm una at once, together, at the same time vates seer, prophet Venus goddess of Love, Aeneas’s mother vertex whirlpool, vortex verto turn, direct, change; twist; destroy verus true, real, actual, genuine vinco conquer, overcome, defeat; banish volo velle - wish, want, desire volo volare - fly vultus face, appearance; expression

WORDS OCCURRING 5-8 TIMES

accendo set on fire; inflame; arouse; inspire accipio receive, accept, admit, welcome acer sharp, keen, fierce, violent Achates Aeneas’s constant companion adeo to that degree, so adeo adire – go to, approach, reach visit, encounter, meet adfor address, speak to adloquor address, speak to adsum be present, be at hand, near adversus turned toward, opposing, facing, adverse aeger sick, diseased, weary, weak Aeolus god of the winds aer air, breeze, mist, cloud aeternus everlasting, eternal aether upper air, ether; air; sky, heaven agnosco recognize ala wing, pinion alter one of the two, the other amicus friendly; as noun - friend amitto lose, send away; let go amo love, cherish, like amplector enfold, embrace, wind about an or Anchises Aeneas’s father anima breath, breath of life; life, existence; shade, soul spirit Anna Dido’s sister annus year antiquus of olden times, ancient, aged, former antrum cave, cavern, grotto aperio open, uncover, disclose, reveal Apollo god of music and prophecy appareo appear, be disclosed, be seen arbor tree, trunk, shoot artus joint, limb, frame, body Ascanius Aeneas’s son aspicio look at, look upon, behold; regard attollo lift up, raise up; rear aureus golden, of gold auris ear Ausonius Ausonian, Italian bonus good cado fall, fall down, descend caecus blind caedes killing, slaughter, carnage campus field, plan, level place cano sing, sound, play carus dear, precious, valued cedo go from, remove, withdraw, abandon celer quick, swift, speedy certus determined, resolved, fixed, certain cervix neck, nape circumdo surround, place around, encompass claudo shut, close, enclose clipeus round shield cogo collect, compel, force, urge colligo gather, collect; assemble coma hair; foliage comitor accompany, attend, follow compono collect, lay; put to rest, quiet conubium marriage cor heart Creusa Aeneas’s wife crinis hair cruentus spotted with blood, bloody, stained cunctor delay, linger, hesitate currus chariot, car, wagon Dardanius Trojan, of Dardanus demitto let down, drop, let fall, shed desero leave, forsake, abandon, desert dirus ominous, fearful, awful, dreadful, horrible dives rich, wealthy, opulent doceo teach, instruct, inform dux leader, guide, general ecce behold! look! effero carry out, take away; bear, produce effor utter, tell, speak out egregius distinguished, excellent, eminent ensis sword ergo therefore, consequently, accordingly Eurus southeast or east wind exanimus lifeless, dead excipio take out, withdraw; take up, catch, receive exuviae spoils; relics; skin facilis easy fallo trip, fall;err, mistake, deceive oneself fas divine law; with est=it is lawful, it is permitted fides faith, loyalty, belief, reliance; trustworthiness fidus loyal, faithful, credible figo fix, fasten; pierce foedo make foul, defile, pollute forma form, shape; beauty foveo cherish, fondle, caress frater brother fremo roar, resound, howl; applaud; grumble because of frustra in vain, for nothing fulgeo flash, glitter, gleam, shine funus funeral procession, funeral rites, burial; death, murder geminus twin gero bear, carry, wage Graius Greek habeo have, hold, support, carry; consider, regard haereo cling, stick, be fastened; linger, pause hasta spear, lance, javelin Hector Troy’s champion, son of Hector heros hero, demigod hiems winter, winter time honor honor, repute, esteem, distinction huc to this place, hither; to this point, so far iaceo lie, be prostrate, lie at rest Iliacus of Ilium, Trojan impello strike against, strike, push; set in motion impono place upon, put on inanis useless, empty, meaningless incendo set fire to, burn; rouse, incite incumbo lean press; bend to; oppress infelix unfortunate, unlucky, miserable; barren ingredior advance, go forward; undertake inimicus hostile, unfriendly, hateful; damaging inquit says, said insequor follow after, come next; proceed, go on insignis distinguished, remarkable, prominent is, ea, id he, she it iste that (of yours) – often contemptuous iterum again, a second time, once more Iulus another name for Ascanius Iuppiter Jupiter, king of the gods ius right, justice, duty iuvenis young, youthful; as a noun – young person iuvo help, aid, assist, serve; delight Karthago Carthage, an ancient city in N. Africa labor labi – slip, glide, slide, move; sink, fall letum death, annihilation lex law, precept, regulation, principle Libya region of N. Africa Libycus of Libya linquo go away, leave, depart from, abandon loco place, put, lay; establish loquor speak, talk, say, tell; declare lucus sacred grove lustro review, observe, examine; illuminate lux light, brightness; pl. heavenly bodies maestus sorrowful, dejected, despondent magis more manes departed spirit, ghost, shade mater mother; native land memini remember, recollect memor mindful, remembering memoro mention, recount, speak of, tell miror wonder, marvel at, be astonished miseror lament, commiserate; pity modus measure; way, manner; method moles mass, weight; greatness; difficulty, labor, trouble molior exert, strive toil; build; rouse mollis yielding, soft, tender, gentle monstro point out, exhibit, indicate, inform; urge, advise mora delay, procrastination; obstruction, hindrance moror delay, stay, remain, linger mortalis mortal, transient mos practice, custom, habit; institution moveo move, remove, shake; excite, arouse, agitate munus service, office; burial murmur murmur, roar, growling, grumbling, crash nam for nemus wood, grove, forest nequiquam in vain, without reason nullus no, none; worthless; no one nympha nymph obscurus dark, shady, obscure; unknown Olympus Mt. Olympus, home of the gods omnipotens almighty, omnipotent ops aid, help, assistance; means, wealth, resources opto choose, prefer ostium door; mouth, entrance pando spread out, extend; open, lay open par equal, even; well-balanced parvus small; short, brief pateo be open, stand open patior bear, support, suffer, endure patria native land, own country; home patrius fatherly; traditional pax peace, reconciliation Penates household gods, gods of the state pendeo hang, be suspended; loiter penitus inwardly, deeply; thoroughly Pergama Troy pergo proceed, go on, hasten pes foot; sheet Phoebus Apollo Phrygius Phrygian, Trojan pietas devotion, dutiful conduct, sense of duty pius devoted, dutiful, devout, conscientious poena penalty, punishment pontus sea portus port, harbor posco ask, beg, demand, request post after, behind; afterwards postquam after, when precor ask, beg, entreat, request prior former, previous, prior, first procul in the distance, far, from afar proles offspring, children, descendants pugna fight, battle Pyrrhus Achilles’ son qua where? how? in any way quando when? quin why not?; but, indeed quisquis whoever, whatever; everyone who quo where; at which time quondam once, at some time, at one time; sometimes quoque also, too rapidus fierce; rushing, swift recipio receive, take back; recover, rescue reduco lead back, bring back regius royal, regal, kingly rego rule, control; direct, guide remitto send back, drive back; loosen, relax; give up repono put back, restore; stretch out; lay aside, store respicio look back, gaze at, look for reviso look back; revisit robur hardwood, oak; tree trunk; oak tree Rutuli Rutulians, Turnus’ tribe sacro consecrate, dedicate, devote seco cut, reap, carve; operate, divide sedeo sit; hold court septem seven sermo speech, conversation; talk, report, rumor servo save, guard, keep seu same as sive Sibylla Sibyl, prophetess simul at the same time, simultaneously sine without sino allow, permit sinus bay; fold; bosom sive whether; or if solum ground, base, foundation solvo loosen, relax; release, unfurl; dispel, dismiss sono resound, make a noise; speak, express spero hope, look for, expect spumo foam, froth sterno spread out; overthrow, level, flatten strideo make a harsh noise, hiss superbus proud, arrogant, insolent taurus bull; bullock tego cover, cover over, hide; shelter; dissemble, keep secret tempestas storm, tempest; disturbance; multitude tempto try, attempt; tempt ter three times, thrice terreo frighten, terrify thalamus inner room, chamber; marriage bed torqueo twist, bend, turn torus sofa, couch, bed traho draw, drag; lead, bring; sweep along; spend, prolong tremo tremble, shake, quake tristis sad, sorrowful, dejected; dismal, gloomy Tros Trojan tutus safe, secure uterus womb; belly valeo be well, be strong; say goodbye varius various, variegated; changing, variable; fickle vastus unoccupied; vast, immense, huge vel or, or indeed; certainly velut just as, even as, like vestigium step, footprint, track; trace, mark, vestige vestis clothing, attire, garments vetus old, aged vinculum chain, rope, fetter; bond virgo young woman, virgin virtus strength, courage, excellence; character, virtue vita life vos you

Comments