EI: Use simple sentences to give details from simple stories; Connect text to personal experience; ..... Farmer in the Dell (Sentence Patterning Chart - SPC).
PROJECT GLAD Mountain View School District ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE (Level 4) IDEA PAGES
I. UNIT THEME
Electromagnetic force is one of four main forces in the universe and has many useful applications in everyday life throughout the world.
Electricity and magnetism are two forms of the single phenomena, electromagnetic force. Many scientists have contributed to this field, and their work is built upon the foundation of previous research and discoveries.
II. FOCUS/MOTIVATION Big Books Read Aloud Observation Charts Inquiry Charts Realia – magnets, iron filings Picture File Cards Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal World Poetry and Songs
III. CLOSURE Process all charts and learnings Add to living walls Team Exploration Personal Exploration Sharing of Team and Personal Explorations On-going assessments – Learning logs, Interactive journals Home-School Connection Team Jeopardy game
IV. CONCEPTS Atoms have negatively charged electrons that spin around a nucleus of
positively charged protons and neutrons. Charges fill space with an electric field. Static electricity is associated with the gain or loss of electrons. Electromagnetic forces can attract or repel. Opposite electrical charges attract each other, and like electrical charges repel each other. Electric current is the flow of electrons. A complete, continuous path of current is called an electric circuit. Conductors are materials that allow energy to flow and carry out current.
Simple, series, and parallel circuits can be built by using materials such as wires, batteries, and bulbs. Magnetic materials are sources of magnetic fields. The Earth has a magnetic field caused by electrical currents. Magnets have two poles; like poles repel and unlike poles attract. Electric current, like magnets, produce magnetic fields. Electromagnets are used in many simple devices, tools, and appliances. Electromotive forces are produced in a wire whenever a magnetic field cuts across the wire. Safety when using electromagnetic forces
I. Electricity – Static Electricity/ Electric Currents atoms, charge, electric field, electricity, circuits, simple circuit, series circuit, parallel circuit, batteries, bulbs, wire, resistance, current, voltage, short circuit, fuse, conductor, insulator, superconductor, electrical energy, potential energy, capacitors, AC – alternating current, DC – direct current, amperes, coulombs, watts, volts, ohms, joules, circuit breaker, conversion, switch, lightning, ammeter, voltmeter, multimeter, ohmmeter
magnets, repulsion, attraction, repel, attract, compass, magnetic field, poles, permanent magnets, geographic North Pole and South Pole, polarized, domains, magnetic materials, ferromagnetic elements
III. Electromagnetic Force
electromagnets, electromotive force, motors, generators, doorbells, induction, inductors, solenoid coil, temporary magnets, motion, energy, transformers, power, watts, earphones
VI. ENGLISH/LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS
CA STATE STANDARDS – GRADE 4 ENGLISH-LANGUAGE ARTS:our
READING 1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.
Word Recognition 1.1 Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1.2 Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to determine the meaning of words and phrases. 1.3 Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a passage. 1.4 Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., international). 1.5 Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts. 1.6 Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings.
2.0 Reading Comprehension Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). Structural Features of Informational Materials 2.1 Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension. Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 2.2 Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension, location of information, personal enjoyment). 2.3 Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues. 2.4 Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas. 2.5 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.
2.6 Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text. 2.7 Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).
3.0 Literary Response and Analysis Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children’s literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. Structural Features of Literature 3.1 Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales. Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 3.2 Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on future actions. 3.3 Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a character’s traits and motivations to determine the causes for that character’s actions. 3.4 Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character type and develop theories to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster tales). 3.5 Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary works.
WRITING 1.0 Writing Strategies Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions). Organization and Focus 1.1 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view based upon purpose, audience, length, and format requirements. 1.2 Create multiple-paragraph compositions: a. Provide an introductory paragraph.
b. Establish and support a central idea with a topic sentence at or near the beginning of the first paragraph. c. Include supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations. d. Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the points. e. Use correct indention. 1.3 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question). Penmanship 1.4 Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic. Research and Technology 1.5 Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately. 1.6 Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features (e.g., prefaces, appendixes). 1.7 Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia, online information) as an aid to writing. 1.8 Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use those print materials. 1.9 Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology (e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive). Evaluation and Revision 1.10 Edit and revise selected drafts to improve coherence and progression by adding, deleting, consolidating, and rearranging text.
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0. Using the writing strategies of grade four outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students: 2.1 Write narratives: a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience. b. Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience. c. Use concrete sensory details. d. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable. 2.2 Write responses to literature: a. Demonstrate an understanding of the literary work. b. Support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge.
2.3 Write information reports: a. Frame a central question about an issue or situation. b. Include facts and details for focus. c. Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, other media sources). 2.4 Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most significant details.
WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills. 1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level. Sentence Structure 1.1 Use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking. 1.2 Combine short, related sentences with appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. Grammar 1.3 Identify and use regular and irregular verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions in writing and speaking. Punctuation 1.4 Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case of nouns and in contractions. 1.5 Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to identify titles of documents. Capitalization 1.6 Capitalize names of magazines, newspapers, works of art, musical compositions, organizations, and the first word in quotations when appropriate. Spelling 1.7 Spell correctly roots, inflections, suffixes and prefixes, and syllable constructions.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING 1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation. Project GLAD
Comprehension 1.1 Ask thoughtful questions and respond to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration in oral settings. 1.2 Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken messages and formal presentations. 1.3 Identify how language usages (e.g., sayings, expressions) reflect regions and cultures. 1.4 Give precise directions and instructions. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication 1.5 Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listener’s understanding of important ideas and evidence. 1.6 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question). 1.7 Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and concepts. 1.8 Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify information. 1.9 Use volume, pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures appropriately to enhance meaning. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral Media Communication 1.10 Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention on events and in forming opinions on issues.
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0. Using the speaking strategies of grade four outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students: 2.1 Make narrative presentations: a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections about an event or experience. b. Provide a context that enables the listener to imagine the circumstances of the event or experience. c. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable. 2.2 Make informational presentations: a. Frame a key question. b. Include facts and details that help listeners to focus. c. Incorporate more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, television or radio reports). 2.3 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details. 2.4 Recite brief poems (i.e., two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing. Project GLAD
CA STATE STANDARDS GRADE 3-5 ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
B: Speak with few words/sentences, Answer simple questions with one/two word response; Retell familiar stories/participate in short conversations/using gestures EI: Ask/answer questions using phrases/simple sentences Restate/execute multi-step oral directions I: Ask/answer questions using support elements EA: Identify main points/support details from content areas A: Identify main points/support details from stories & subject areas Respond to & use idiomatic expressions appropriately
Comprehension, Organization & Delivery of Oral Communication
B: Uses common social greetings EI: Identify main points of simple conversations/stories (read aloud) Communicate basic needs; Recite rhymes/songs/simple stories I: Speak with Standard English grammatical forms/sound Participate in social conversations by asking/answering question Retell stories/share school activities using vocabulary, descriptive words/paraphrasing EA: Retell stories including characters, setting, plot, summary, analysis Use Standard English grammatical forms/sounds/intonation/pitch Initiate social conversations by asking & answering questions/restating & soliciting information Appropriate speaking based on purpose, audience, subject matter; Ask/answer instructional questions Use figurative language & idiomatic expressions A: Question/restate/paraphrase in social conversations Speak/write based on purpose, audience, & subject matter Identify main idea, point of view, & fact/fiction in broadcast & print media Use Standard English grammatical forms/sounds/ intonation/pitch
READING – WORD ANALYSIS (GRADES 3-5 ELD CA STANDARDS)
Concepts about Print, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding & Word Recognition
B: Recognize familiar phonemes Recognize sound/symbol relationships in own writing EI: Read orally recognizing /producing phonemes not in primary language Recognize morphemes in phrases/simple sentences I: Read aloud with correct pronunciation of most phonemes Use common morphemes in oral & silent reading EA: Use knowledge of morphemes to derive meaning from literature/texts in content areas A: Use roots & affixes to derive meaning
READING – FLUENCY & SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
Vocabulary & Concept Development
B: Read aloud simple words in stories/games Respond to social & academic interactions (simple questions/answers) Demonstrate comprehension of simple vocabulary with action Retell simple stories with drawings, words, phrases Uses phrases/single word to communicate basic needs EI: Use content vocabulary in discussions/reading Read simple vocabulary, phrases, & sentences independently Use morphemes, phonics, syntax to decode & comprehend words Recognize & correct grammar, usage, word choice in speaking or reading aloud Read own narrative & expository text aloud with pacing, intonation, and expression I: Create dictionary of frequently used words Decode/comprehend meaning of unfamiliar words in text Recognize & correct grammar, usage, word choice in speaking or reading aloud Read grade level narrative/expository text aloud with pacing, intonation, expression Use context vocabulary in discussions/reading Recognize common roots & affixes EA: Use morphemes, phonics, syntax to decode/comprehend words Recognize multiple meaning words in content literature & texts Use common roots & affixes Use standard dictionary to find meanings Recognize analogies & metaphors in content literature & texts Use skills/knowledge to achieve independent reading Use idioms in discussions & reading Read complex narrative & expository texts aloud with pacing, intonation, and expression A: Apply common roots & affixes knowledge to vocabulary Recognize multiple meaning words Apply academic & social vocabulary to achieve independent reading; Use idioms, analogies, & metaphors in discussion & reading Use standard dictionary to find meanings Read narrative & expository text aloud with pacing, and intonation
B: Answer fact questions using one/two word response Connect simple test read aloud to personal experience Understand and follow one-step directions Sequence events from stories read aloud using key words/phrase Identify main idea using key words/phrases Identify text features: title/table of contents/chapter heading
EI: Use simple sentences to give details from simple stories; Connect text to personal experience; Follow simple two-step directions; Identify sequence of text using simple sentences; Read & identify main ideas to draw inferences; Identify text features: title, table of contents, chapter headings; Identify fact/opinion in grade level text read aloud to students I: Orally respond to comprehension questions about written text; Read text features: titles, table of contents, headings, diagrams, charts, glossaries, and indexes; Identify main idea to make predictions & support details; Orally describe connections between text and personal experience; Follow multi-step directions for classroom activities; Identify example of fact/opinion and cause/effect in literature and content texts EA: Give main idea with supporting detail from grade level text Generate & respond to text-related comprehension questions Describe relationships between text & personal experience Identify function of text features: format/diagrams/charts/glossary Draw conclusions & make inferences using text resources Find examples of fact, opinion, inference, & cause/effect in text Identify organizational patterns in text: sequence, chronology A: Make inferences/generalizations, draw conclusions from grade level text resources Describe main ideas with support detail from text Identify patterns in text: compare/contrast, sequence/cause/effect
WRITING STRATEGIES AND APPLICATION
Penmanship, Organization, & Focus
B: Write alphabet Label key parts of common object Create simple sentences/phrases Write brief narratives/stories using few standard grammatical forms EI: Write narratives that include setting and character Respond to literature using simple sentences, drawings, lists, chart Write paragraphs of at least four sentences Write words/simple sentences in content areas Write friendly letter Produce independent writing I: Narrate sequence of events Produce independent writing Use variety of genres in writing Create paragraph developing central idea using grammatical form Use complex vocabulary & sentences in all content areas Write a letter with detailed sentences
EA: Write detailed summary of story Arrange compositions with organizational patterns Independently write responses to literature Use complex vocabulary & sentences in all content areas Write a persuasive letter with relevant evidence Write multi-paragraph narrative & expository for content areas A: Write short narrative for all content areas Write persuasive composition Write narratives that describe setting, character, objects, and events Write multi-paragraph narrative & expository compositions Independently use all steps of writing process
B: Begin own name and sentences with a capital letter Use period at end of sentence EI: Begin proper nouns & sentences with capital letter Use period at end of sentence, and use some commas Edit for basic conventions I: Produce independent writing Use standard word order EA: Produce independent writing with correct capitals, punctuation, and spelling Use standard word order Edit for basic conventions A: Use correct parts of speech Edit for punctuation, capitalization, and spelling Produce writing with command of standard conventions
READING LITERARY RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level Appropriate Text
B: One/two-word oral responses to factual comprehension questions Word/phrase oral response identifying characters and settings Distinguish between fiction & non-fiction Identify fairy tales, folktale, myth, and legend using lists, charts, and tables EI: Orally answer factual questions using simple sentences Orally identify main events in plot; Recite simple poems Orally describe setting of literature piece; Orally describe character of a selection Orally distinguish among poetry, drama, and short story I: Paraphrase response to text using expanded vocabulary Apply knowledge of language to derive meaning from text EA: Describe figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification) Distinguish literary connotations from culture to culture Identify motives of characters Project GLAD
Describe themes stated directly Identify speaker/narrator in text Identify main problem of plot and how it is resolved Recognize first & third person in literary text A: Describe characteristics of poetry, drama, fiction, & non-fiction Evaluate author’s use of techniques to influence reader Describe directly stated and implied themes Compare and contrast motives of characters in work of fiction
VII. MATH/SCIENCE/SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS/UNDERSTANDING
CA STATE FRAMEWORK SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS FOR GRADE 4
PHYSICAL SCIENCE: 1. Electricity and magnetism are related effects that have many useful applications in everyday life. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know how to design and build simple series and parallel circuits by using components such as wires, batteries, and bulbs. b. Students know how to build a simple compass and use it to detect magnetic effects, including Earth’s magnetic field. c. Students know electric currents produce magnetic fields and know how to build a simple electromagnet. d. Students know the role of electromagnets in the construction of electric motors, electric generators, and simple devices, such as doorbells and earphones. e. Students know electrically charged objects attract or repel each other. f. Students know that magnets have two poles (north and south) and that like poles repel each other while unlike poles attract each other. g. Students know electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion.
INVESTIGATION AND EXPERIMENTATION 6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
a. Differentiate observation from inference (interpretation) and know scientists’ explanations come partly from what they observe and partly from how they interpret their observations. b. Measure and estimate the weight, length, or volume of objects. c. Formulate and justify predictions based on cause-and-effect relationships. d. Conduct multiple trials to test a prediction and draw conclusions about the relationships between predictions and results. e. Construct and interpret graphs from measurements. f. Follow a set of written instructions for a scientific investigation.
CA HISTORY/SOCIAL SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS – GRADE 4
4.1 Students demonstrate a understanding of the physical and human
geographic features that define places a regions in California.
2. Distinguish between the North and South Poles
VIII. RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
Callan, Jim. Amazing Scientists; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY 1997 Christelow, Eileen. What Do Authors Do?, Clarion Books, NY 1995 Cole, Joanna & Degen, Bruce. Magic School Bus and the Electric Field Trip; Scholastic, NY 1997 Da Silva, Wilson. A Guide to Modern Science, Fog City Press, CA 2002 Lafferty, Peter. Magnets to Generators; Gloucester Press, NY 1989 Lehrman, Robert. Physics, The Easy Way, Barron’s Educational Series, NY 1998 Oxlade, Chris. States of Matter; Heinemann Library, Chicago, Il 2002 Oxlade, Chris. Atoms; Heinemann Library, Chicago, Il 2002 Parker, Steve. Electricity; Dorling Kindersly, Inc., NY 1992 Tocci, Salvatore. The Periodic Table; Children’s Press, NY 2004 Raintree-Steck-Vaughn. Electricity and Magnetism; NY 2002 Ramsey, W. Physcial Science, Holt, NY 1997 Schreiber, Anne. Magnets, Scholastic, NY 2003 Stockley, C. Usborne Illustrated Dictionary of Physics, EDC Publishing 2000 VanCleave, Janice. Magnets, John Wiley & Sons, NY 1993 Whalley, Margaret. Experiment with Magnets and Electricity; Lerner Publications Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota 1994
District Texts Discovery Works, Grade 4, Houghton Mifflin – Science Avenues, Grade 5, Hampton-Brown
Internet Resources Types of Magnetism, Materials by Design www.mse.cornell.edu/courses Circuits www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/3/physics Electricity & Static Electricity www.sciencemadesimple.com/static Ultra simple Electric Generator www.amasci.com/amateur Circuit Diagrams www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources Scientists www.enchantedlearning.com
PROJECT GLAD Mountain View School District ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE (Level 4) UNIT PLANNING PAGES
Observation Charts Inquiry Charts Direct Experiences Realia Read Aloud Big Book Cognitive Content Dictionary Learning Logs Scientific Awards Comparative Input
Pictorial Inputs – atom, 3 states of matter, electrical charges and fields, circuits, magnets – Earth, permanent, electromagnets Narrative Input Comparative Input 10/2 lecture Read Aloud/Shared Book Experiences Realia Demonstrations/Explorations/ Labs (static electricity, compass, circuits, magnetic fields) Videos – Bill Nye, Lightning … Listen and Sketch Timeline of Scientists and their contributions
III. GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE
T-Graph Cooperative learning techniques for cross-cultural respect and decision making Personal Interaction for bonding/respect Exploration Report/Picture File Cards Poetry/Chants/Songs/Rap Farmer in the Dell Process Grid Team Points Flexible groupings
PROJECT GLAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE UNIT PLANNING PAGES Page 2
Group Frame On-going processing of charts
Total class modeling – English, Primary language, all genres
Small Groups – Cooperative Tasks, Flex Groupings – by need & choice Focused reading Shared, guided, and flexible group reading Interactive reading Cooperative Strip paragraphs Expert Groups Mind Mapping Oral book sharing Flip chants Ear-to-ear reading Big Books Textbooks and trade books Reader’s Theater Group Frame
Individual Practice and Choice (Student’s own language) SSR SSW All genres and domains Interactive Journals, Learning Logs, Mind-mapping International Library Read Aloud by teacher and students of a variety of literature including students’ work
Writer’s Workshop Choice Metacognition – Mini-lesson and Conferencing Author’s Chair (Works in Progress only) Author’s Day (Sharing of Completed Works)
PROJECT GLAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE UNIT PLANNING PAGES Page 3
V. EXTENDED ACTIVITIES FOR INTEGRATION (INTELLIGENCES)
Role-playing/drama Guided imagery Scientific Explorations Music/Movement Poetry Art i-Movie Field trips Computer
Personal exploration Rubrics Assessments matched to outcomes/standards Practical – building of circuits, compass, electromagnet Team exploration
Process charts and learnings On-going assessments Group Frames, Learning Logs, Interactive Journals Running Records/Writing Inventories Home-School Connection/Family Involvement Alternative assessment strategies Videos, plays, presentations, demonstrations, building projects, Big Books, Portfolios District tests Teaching of study skills and test-taking skills
PROJECT GLAD Mountain View School District ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE (Level 4) SAMPLE DAILY LESSON PLANS
DAY 1: (Electromagnetism)
Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word Scientist Awards – standards Observation Charts Inquiry Chart Big Book
INPUT Timeline Pictorial Input – Magnets 10/2 Discussions, primary language groups Learning Log ELD Review Read Aloud
GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE Poems/Songs – Matter, I’m a Magnet T-graph Exploration Report/Picture File Cards
INPUT Comparative Input Chart Learning Log ELD Review
READING/WRITING Writer’s Workshop Mini-lesson Write Author’s Chair
CLOSURE Process charts Interactive Journals Home/School Connection PROJECT GLAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE SAMPLE DAILY LESSON PLANS Page 2
DAY 2: (Electromagnetism)
Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word Process Home/School Connection Review with Word Cards – Timeline, Magnets Input, Comparative Input Poem – Electrons Here, Electrons There Big Book Review Realia
INPUT Narrative Input Learning Log 10/2
GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE Chant – I Know a Physicist Process T-graph Personal Interaction
INPUT (not for demo purposes/ for classroom implementation) Pictorial Input - Electricity Learning Log ELD Review
READING/WRITING Flexible Groups – Expert Groups Team Tasks Writer’s Workshop Mini-lesson Write Author’s Chair
CLOSURE Process Inquiry Chart Interactive Journals Home/School Connection PROJECT GLAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE SAMPLE DAILY LESSON PLANS Page 3
DAY 3: (Electromagnetism)
Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word Process Home/School Connection Highlight Poetry Big Book/Read Aloud Review Input Charts Narrative input – Conversation Bubbles/Word Card Review
INPUT Direct Experience Learning Logs Listen and Sketch – The Legend of Magnes
GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE Farmer in the Dell (Sentence Patterning Chart - SPC) Reading/Trading Flip Chants Poetry
READING/WRITING Flex Groups – Expert Groups Team Tasks
GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE Process Grid – Numbered Heads Together
READING/WRITING Cooperative Strip Paragraph Respond, Revise, Edit Strip Book Reading/Writing Workshop Mini-lesson, Write, Author’s Chair
CLOSURE Process Inquiry Chart Journals Home/School Connection PROJECT GLAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE SAMPLE DAILY LESSON PLANS Page 4
DAY 4: (Electromagnetism)
Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word Student’s Choice - Stumper Word Process Home/School Connection Poetry
INPUT Story Map of Narrative Read Aloud
READING/WRITING Flexible Group Reading Team Tasks Clunkers and Links Group Frame - ELD Retell (Narrative) Reading/Writing Workshop
GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE Chants/Poetry
CLOSURE Turn in Learning Logs for Evaluation Process Charts
PROJECT GLAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE SAMPLE DAILY LESSON PLANS Page 5
DAY 5: (Electromagnetism)
Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word Student Choice – Stumper Word Process Home/School Connection
GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE Chants/Poetry
READING/WRITING Flex Group Reading with Cooperative Strip Paragraph Team Tasks Team Presentations Found Poetry Ear to Ear reading with Poetry Booklet Reading/Writing Workshop Mini-lesson Write Author’s Chair Focused Reading - Read the Walls Personal CCD
CLOSURE Presentations/Publishing Letter Home Process Inquiry Chart Process Week – “What helped you learn?” Chant – Superstar
I JUST THOUGHT YOU’D LIKE TO KNOW…
about ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM
By Lillie Ruvalcaba
I just thought you’d like to know… Our earth is a giant magnet. A compass detects magnetic fields, including Earth’s magnetic field. I just thought you’d like to know.
I just thought you’d like to know… Magnets have two poles, north and south. Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other. I just thought you’d like to know.
I just thought you’d like to know… Electrically charged objects attract and repel each other. I just thought you’d like to know.
I just thought you’d like to know… Electric currents produce magnetic fields. You can even build your own simple electromagnet! I just thought you’d like to know.
I just thought you’d like to know… Both simple series and parallel series circuits use things like wires, batteries and bulbs. I just thought you’d like to know.
I just thought you’d like to know… Electrical energy can be converted to heat, light and motion. I just thought you’d like to know.
I just thought you’d like to know… Electricity and magnetism are related effects that have many useful applications in everyday life. I just thought you’d like to know.
The Important Book about Electricity
By Marita d’Arnaud
An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
Electricity is one form of electromagnetic force. A force is a push or a pull. Electricity is related to magnetism, the other form of electromagnetic force. Electrical energy, which comes from charged particles, allows us do many things like play a PlayStation II game, toast bread in a toaster, and drive an electric car. But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. Negatively charged electrons(-) in atoms spin around a nucleus of positively charged protons(+) and neutrons(0), which have no charge. When atoms lose or gain electrons, the atoms become charged. Charges fill space with an electric field. Opposite charges attract each other, and like charges repel each other. But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. When negative charges move from one object to another, charge builds up on both objects. One object will have a positive charge. The other will have a negative charge. This buildup of charges is called static electricity. Built-up charges can leak out harmlessly or “jump” causing an electrical discharge, like lightning or an electrical shock. But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. A stream of moving electrons produces an electric current. An electric circuit is a complete, continuous path of current. Conductors, like copper and aluminum, are materials that allow current to flow easily. Insulators, like rubber and plastic, do not allow current to flow. But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. Simple, series, and parallel circuits can be built using materials such as wires, batteries, switches, and bulbs. As current flows through a bulb, electrical energy is converted to heat and light energy. As electric current flows, a magnetic field is produced. A moving magnetic field creates an electric current. Electricity allows us to turn on lights, play videogames, use a microwave, and watch television. But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
The Important Book about Magnetism By Marita d’Arnaud
An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. Magnetism is one form of electromagnetic force. A force is a push or a pull. Magnetism is related to electricity, the other form of electromagnetic force. Can openers, magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains, and screwdrivers use magnets. But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. Magnetic materials include metals and metal alloys like iron, nickel, and cobalt. Magnets come in different sizes and shapes such as rings, bars, and horseshoes. There are temporary magnets and permanent magnets. But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. A magnet has two poles, a north pole and a south pole. Each magnet produces a magnetic field traveling from north to south that curves around the magnet. Unlike poles attract, and like poles repel. The closer the poles are, the stronger the force. Electric currents produce magnetic fields. But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. Our earth, with a nickel and iron core, is a giant magnet that has a magnetic north pole and south pole. Scientists theorize that moving electric currents inside the earth create its magnetic field. A compass is a magnetized needle that points to the earth’s magnetic north pole. The earth’s magnetic poles are at least one thousand miles away from the earth’s geographic poles. But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life. Just as an electric current produces a magnetic field, a changing magnetic field produces an electric current. A coiled wire with an electric current has a stronger magnetic field than a straight wire with current. Inserting an iron bar into the coil creates an electromagnet, with an even stronger field. Electromagnets are used in electric generators, motors, and simple devices such as doorbells, VCRs, telephones, and loudspeakers. But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.
THE LEGEND OF MAGNES
A legend is a story about an event that happened a long time ago. Usually, a legend has some truth to it, but untruths have often been added through the years. There is a Greek legend about how magnets were first discovered.
Thousands of years ago, an old man named Magnes was herding his sheep. As he walked his sheep through the fields, he climbed on a large, black rock to get a better view.
Something strange happened. The nails in his shoes and the metal at the tip of his shepherd’s staff stuck to the rock! He lifted his feet out of his shoes and left his staff to go tell the townspeople of Magnesia what happened.
They came to look at the mysterious rock. The townspeople were amazed. Magnes then removed his shoes and staff and went on his way. The townspeople named the black rock “magnetite” after the old man and the town nearby.
Over the years, legends were made up about the power of magnetite.
Some legends told of magnetite having magical powers. Others told of magnetite healing the sick and driving evil spirits away. Sailors told legends of ships made of iron being attracted to magnetite rocks only to be crushed and shipwrecked.
From Teacher Created Materials Famous Scientists Timeline L. Ruvalcaba MVSD GLAD 2005
470 BC Democritus Greek philosopher - theorizes about the atom. Theorized that all matter was made up of invisible particles called atoms. His idea was rejected at the time because it could not be proved. He was even suspected of being insane.
625-547 BC Thales Ancient Greek scientist, Thales, observed that an electric charge could be generated by rubbing amber with a piece of wool or fur, the greek word for electron
1600 William Gilbert English Scientist - first to study about the lines of force around magnets. He theorized that Earth was a large magnet and exerted a magnetic influence (gravity) throughout the solar system. He was the first scientist to use the word electric to describe one object’s power to attract others. He made the first electroscope, an instrument that detects the presence of an electric charge.
1687 Sir Isaac Newton British Scientist - Explained how all objects in the universe, even the planets, move. His laws of motion used math and he made predictions, for the first time. Scientists still consider Newton the most famous physicist ever.
1752. Benjamin Franklin American statesman and inventor. He proved that lightning was static electricity, invented the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, and the lightning rod.
1769 James Watt Scottish engineer – made important improvements to the steam engine, thereby helping to stimulate the Industrial Revolution. He was the first person who coined the term, horsepower. The basic measure of electric power is the watt, which was named in his honor.
1800 Alessandro Volta Italian physicist. Discovered that 2 metals in contact could create an electric current. Created the first electric battery and condenser. Invented the electrophorous to show static electricity, a device with two metal plates that can make an electrical charge. Volt (modern unit of electric potential, which is the strength or “electric push” of the flowing charge) named after him
1803 John Dalton English scientist provided proof that atoms existed. His atomic theory states that all matter is made up of small, indivisible particles called atoms. Atoms of different particles have different properties, but all atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.
1819 Hans Christian Oersted Danish Scientist – discovered electromagnetism He was conducting an experiment with an electrical circuit and noticed that when he turned the circuit on and off the needle of his nearby compass would jump. He concluded that electricity produces magnetism. His discovery became the basis of the electric motor and the electromagnet.
1826 Georg Ohm Made an important discovery about resistance. He studied the relationship between the amount of current that flowed through a wire(amperage) and the amount of EMF that drove the current (voltage).
1830’s Andre Ampere French scientist - Discovered that if he passed an electric current through a coil of wire, the wire acted like a magnet. The basic unit of electric current flow is named “ampere.”
1831 Michael Faraday British Scientist – Conducted an experiment devised to bring about the conversion of magnetism to electricity. He imagined that there were “lines of force” stretching out in space from a magnet. He discovered electromagnetic induction, a varying or moving magnetic field produces an electromotive force emf in a nearby conductor, and thus an electric current if the conductor is part of a circuit. Constructed the first electric generator.
1847 Alexander Graham Bell Born in Scotland, emigrated to America in
1871. American scientist and inventor. He found that different voice tones could vary the electrical signals flowing in a wire, by the process of electromagnetic induction. Invented an early version of the telephone.
1865 James Clerk Maxwell Scottish physicist. Developed the math to describe electric and magnetic fields and how they affect each other. He showed that magnetic fields and electric fields always exist together, so the field is really an electromagnetic field. Maxwell also produced a theory about what light is and how it moves.
1873 Demitri Mendeleyev Siberian scientist devised his periodic table of elements. He used the atomic weights of elements and grouped the elements according to similar properties, such as how they react with oxygen. This gave him seven different groups of elements. He made the claim that “properties of the elements were periodic functions of their atomic weights.”Mendeleyev called this the periodic table of elements because the chemical properties repeated themselves every seven elements.
1877 Thomas Edison American Inventor He invented the phonograph and the incandescent lightbulb, had more than 1,300 inventions in his lifetime
1881 Lewis H. Latimer African American inventor - He made incandescent lightblulb last much longer by using inexpensive carbon filaments.
1893 Nikola Tesla Croatian Scientist – invented AC power (alternating currents) An alternating current flows alternately in either direction, and its voltage can be easily controlled. Tesla showed that AC power could be transmitted efficiently at high voltages over great distances. When it reached the points it was to be transferred into homes, devices called transformers could decrease the voltage to safe levels. Tesla invented all the different components of the entire AC system – generator, transformer, transmission lines, motor and lights.
1898 Marie Curie Polish scientist – discovered the element radium. Famous for her discoveries in field of radioactivity. Discovered that a small amount of radium would destroy human tissue.
1905 Albert Einstein German scientist – Most famous for his theory of relativity. One of the most famous discoveries in all scientific history was the amount of energy stored in matter. If the amount of energy that is stored in just one pound of coal could be converted into energy it would produce the amount of electricity the entire world uses in one day.
[pic] [pic] [pic] NARRATIVE INPUT
Katrina Faber, her sister Carla, and their parents are spending Saturday afternoon at the Franklin Institute Science Museum in Philadelphia. “Hey kids, come look at this! It’s an exhibit on Ben Franklin’s inventions. He was from Philly, you know, just like us,” said Mrs. Faber. “No, he was born in Boston!” Carla quickly added. Mrs. Faber stated that he lived in Philadelphia, Ben’s favorite city, most of his life. “Wow! This is pretty incredible! Look at all the things he invented. Wood stoves…bifocals…” Mr. Faber exclaimed. Katrina wanted to know what bifocals were. Carla explained that they are special glasses with two lenses. The top is for viewing long distances while the bottom half is for reading. Then Mr. Faber continued to explain how old Ben got tired of switching his regular glasses to his reading glasses that he combined the two and invented bifocals. 1
Katrina sat down on a bench while her family continued looking at exhibits. As Mrs. Faber started talking about Franklin discovering electricity, Katrina noticed an oddly dressed elderly man. He was wearing a shiny suit with ruffles at the wrists, and his pants went down to his knees. His shoes had silver buckles on them. Still, Katrina was sure she’d seen him somewhere before. “It never happened,” the stranger spoke. “What?” asked Katrina. “I never discovered electricity.” Katrina stared at the stranger and was dumbfounded. “What, you don’t recognize old Ben? Ben Franklin?” Ben said. “You can’t be Ben Franklin, he was born a million years ago!” Katrina remarked. “Would you offer him a seat if he were here?” asked Ben. Katrina nodded. 2
Ben sat down next to Katrina and kicked off his shoes and asked her what they were talking about. Katrina couldn’t believe that he had already forgotten what they were discussing. “Electricity, Mr. Franklin,” she replied.
Ben chuckled and then began to explain how many people thought he discovered electricity however it was the Greeks who discovered it about 3,000 years ago in 600 B.C.E. They weren’t sure how to use it. All they knew was that rubbing amber with a piece of wool would create static electricity. He told her another example of static electricity is when a person takes off their hat in the winter and their hair stands straight up. “That’s electricity?” Katrina asked. “Sure. It’s just like your TV,” Ben answered. Then Katrina gave Ben a puzzled look and he replied, “I keep up. Here, close your eyes for a second and I’ll show you exactly how I discovered that lightning was made out of electricity.”
When Katrina opened her eyes, she found herself in a living room of a house. There was a paper on the table that resembled a newspaper with date 1752. Ben was there, with his shoes on, sitting in a chair talking to his son named William. He asked him what he was doing for the day and if he wanted to help perform an experiment. She could then hear Ben saying, “It’s going to be a rainy evening. It’s perfect weather for our electrical experiment. Let’s get started.” Katrina watched as they made a kite out of two crossed strips of cedar wood and an old handkerchief. Then they attached a piece of wire to one of the strips. She wondered if they needed her help or if they could even see her.
The two went outside and Katrina followed. She heard Ben tell William how electricity was discovered hundreds of years ago. Yet, nobody really knew what it was, or how to use it, or if it could be used. “Is it magic?” she heard William ask. “It’s not magic. I suspect it comes from nature. My guess is that lightning is made of electricity. That’s what I hope we can prove tonight. Metal attracts electricity. I think it attracts lightning, too,” Ben said. He then took the kite and tied a large metal key to it. Ben held onto the string as William ran with the kite. A strong wind took the kite high into the air.
“Hey wait! That’s really dangerous! I heard about someone who got hit by lightning on a golf course and got badly hurt! Hey! Can your hear me?” Katrina yelled. Ben and his son didn’t hear Katrina’s warning. “Direct me towards the darkest cloud, William!” Ben instructed. Lightning was flashing all around them, and finally it struck the wire on the kite. Ben reached for the key and yelled, “Yeow!” A spark flew off the key and zapped him. “Did electricity travel down the string? Was that spark electricity?” William asked. “It most certainly was! We’ve done it, William! We’ve proven that lightning is made of electricity!” exclaimed Ben.
“How does this help us?” asked William. Ben put his arm around William and began telling him how he thought he could prevent houses from burning down to the ground that get struck by lightning. He explained that lightning is attracted to metal, and that lightning usually strikes the tallest thing around. Katrina then heard Ben tell his son that if he put a tall metal pole on every house, the lightning would hit the pole instead of the house. “Katrina, it’s time to go!” William said. “What? You can see me?” Katrina said. “I said it’s time to go!” William said again.
Katrina blinked and found that she was sitting on the bench at the Franklin Institute. Katrina’s dad was shaking her on the shoulder. “Hey Katrina, it’s time to go! I said, it’s time to go! Have you been sleeping on this bench all afternoon?” Mr. Faber asked. Carla laughed, “I’ll bet you’ve really learned a lot.” “I learned plenty today,” Katrina responded. She then went into detail about the story of Ben and his son discovering that lightning was made of electricity and how he put that discovery into inventing the lightning rod. “Where did you learn that?” asked Mrs. Faber. “Ben Franklin told me. I mean, I must have read it somewhere,” Katrina stammered. Mr. Faber had then said that it was time to hit the road.
“I need to get a drink of water first. I’ll hurry,” Katrina said. Just as she was getting a drink she noticed someone carefully studying the electricity exhibit. It was Ben. “Mr. Franklin, your still here. I told my parents about the lightning rod. That was great,” Katrina said. With a smile on Ben’s face, he told Katrina of some other amazing accomplishments during his time. He told her how he formed the first fire department, established the first free library, invented the wood stove, signed the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution. He even went to France to raise money for the American Revolution. “Wow, I can’t even finish all of my homework sometimes!” Katrina said.
“People can accomplish a lot if they believe in themselves and work hard. Nothing is so complicated that we can’t understand it. All you have to do is slow down and think it through carefully. Pretty soon it’ll make sense to you. When I was young there were a million things we didn’t understand about science and medicine. But, I read everything I could, spent lots of time thinking about things. Try it. You’ll be surprised what you might discover.” Ben said. Just then Ben pulled a penny from behind Katrina’s ear and handed it to her. “Here’s a penny for your thoughts,” he said. “How did you do that?” Katrina was shocked. “It’s magic,” Ben replied. “Thanks, Mr. Franklin. Thanks for everything,” Katrina said
That night Mrs. Faber went to tuck Katrina into bed. They discussed the events of the day and their favorite exhibits. As Mrs. Faber went to turn the light off she noticed something shiny on Katrina’s desk and picked it up. “This penny is from 1789. Where did you get this?” Mrs. Faber asked. Katrina smiled, “An ‘old’ friend gave it to me.”
“Hey kids, come look at this! It’s
an exhibit on Ben Franklin’s inventions. He was from Philly, you know, just like us.”
“Wow! This is pretty incredible! Look at all the things he invented. Wood stoves…bifocals…”
“I never discovered electricity.”
“Sure. It’s just like your T.V.”
“I keep up. Close your eyes for a second and I’ll show you exactly how I discovered that lightning is made out of electricity.”
“It’s going to be a rainy evening. It’s perfect weather for our electrical experiment. Let’s get started.”
“Is it magic?”
“It’s not magic. I suspect it comes from nature. My guess is that lightning is made of electricity. That’s what I hope we can prove tonight. Metal attracts electricity.”I think it attracts lightning, too.”
“Direct me towards the darkest cloud, William!”
“Was that spark electricity?”
“It most certainly was! We’ve done it, William! We’ve proven that lightning is made of electricity!”
“Katrina, it’s time to go!”
“Hey Katrina, it’s time to go! I said, it’s time to go! Have you been sleeping on this bench all afternoon?”
“Mr. Franklin, you’re still here. I told my parents about the lightning rod. That was great!”
“People can accomplish a lot if they believe in themselves and work hard. Nothing is so complicated that we can’t understand it.”
“Here’s a penny for your thoughts.”
“How did you do that?”
“Thanks, Mr. Franklin. Thanks for everything.”
“This penny is from 1789. Where did you get this?”
“An ‘old’ friend gave it to me.”
Project Glad – MVSD Team 2005
ELECTRONS by M. d’Arnaud
Electrons here, electrons there, Electrons, electrons, everywhere!
Minute electrons spinning, Negative electrons attracting, Weightless electrons repelling, and Spherical electrons flowing.
Electrons in the circuits, Electrons around the magnets, Electrons near the filaments, and Electrons from the generator.
Electrons here, electrons there, Electrons, electrons, everywhere! Electrons, electrons, electrons!
I’M AN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER
I’m an electrical engineer, and here to say
I study how charges move everyday. Sometimes I plan a circuit or read a physics book, Sometimes I analyze how electromagnets look.
Conductors, voltage, and resistance, too The Electrical Current Bugaloo!
I study electricity and where it flows, When switches are flipped, well, there it goes. It travels through conductors often wrapped in insulators, Currents can convert to light, and cool refrigerators.
Conductors, voltage, and resistance, too The Electrical Current Bugaloo!
Parallel and series circuits are part of my design When creating electrical devices divine, Generators and batteries produce electricity, And current can flow as AC or DC.
Conductors, voltage, and resistance, too The Electrical Current Bugaloo!
by M. d’Arnaud
I’M A MAGNET by M. d’Arnaud
(Tune of I’m a Nut)
I’m a magnet, and I’m here to say,
I have a magnetic field around me all day. North and south are my two poles, When next to other magnets, they’ve got their own roles.
I’m a magnet with magnetic force. I’m a magnet with magnetic force!
Unlike poles attract while like poles repel, Attraction or repulsion, it’s easy to tell. I’m a permanent magnet if I’m strongly magnetic, If weak, I’m temporary, not quite so energetic.
I’m a magnet with magnetic force. I’m a magnet with magnetic force!
Electric currents can create strong electromagnets, And magnetic fields can induce electric currents. Nickel, cobalt, and iron are ferromagnetic, Other strong magnets can be natural or synthetic.
I’m a magnet with magnetic force. I’m a magnet with magnetic force!
I’M A CIRCUIT by M. d’Arnaud
(My Darling Clementine tune)
I’m a circuit, I’m a circuit, where electric current flows. I’ve got a light bulb and a battery, Plus conductive wires, everyone knows.
I have voltage from my battery, and resistance in the bulb, Moving electrons cause a current, As they flow, spin, and revolve.
IS THIS A CIRCUIT?
Is this a circuit? Yes, ma’am. Is this a circuit? Yes, ma’am.
How do you know? Electrons are flowing.
How do you know? It has electrical wires.
What else does it have? Light bulbs and switches,
Any other parts? A battery for voltage.
Is this a simple circuit? Yes, ma’am. Is this a simple circuit? Yes, ma’am.
How do you know? It has only one bulb.
What else does it have? A conductor and voltage.
Any other parts? Sometimes a switch. What is happening? Electrons are flowing.
Is this a series circuit? Yes, ma’am. Is this a series circuit? Yes, ma’am. How do you know? It has two or more bulbs. How are they connected? In a row. Give me an example. Holiday lights.
Is this a parallel circuit? Yes, ma’am. Is this a parallel circuit? Yes, ma’am. How do you know? It has two or more bulbs. How are they connected? Branching out in different paths. Give me an example. The lighting in your house.
Well, now are you through? Yes, ma’am. Did you tell me true? Yes, ma’am. And what did you chant? An electrical circuit. And what did you chant? An electrical circuit.
By Elsa Perini and Marita d’Arnaud
By M. M. d’Arnaud
I don’t know, but I’ve been told, An investigation’s worth its weight in gold. A lab experiment is fun to do, The scientific method’s the way for you. Sound off…….Meaningful question, Sound off…….Investigation, Sound off…….1,2…Experiment!
Start with a question for which you’d like an answer, And develop a hypothesis, an educated guess, Determine the variables that can affect the outcomes, Then list the materials and procedures for your tests. Sound off…….Hypothesis, Sound off…….Procedures and Materials, Sound off…….1,2…Experiment!
Carefully observe what’s in motion or at rest, Record and gather data as you measure and test, Repeat your tests, analyze your observations, Then develop a conclusion for the investigation. Sound off…….Analysis, Sound off…….Conclusions, Sound off…….1,2…Experiment!
MATTER by M. M. d’Arnaud (Tune of Down by the Bay)
The world’s made of matter. It has mass and takes up space, And it comes in different phases, Like solid, liquid, and gas. Matter’s made up of elements, Elements’ units are called atoms, More than a hundred different atoms on the Periodic Table, The world’s made of matter.
Our universe is made of matter, Which can melt, boil, freeze, and evaporate. Mixing matter can form new substances, With different properties than the originals. Early people thought all matter Was made of earth, wind, fire, and water, Over a hundred different atoms, microscopic and in motion, Make up our universe.
(Tune of The Brady Bunch – Verse 2 & Chorus)
By Kendra Maxwell and Margaret John
Here’s a story About the states of matter, It is everywhere in this whole wide world. It is people. It is water. It is plants. It is rocks, and it is air.
The states of matter, The states of matter, It is solid. It is liquid. It is gas. I Know a Physicist
I know an accomplished physicist, An observant accomplished physicist, An observant accomplished physicist, Who studies the laws of the universe.
He develops and conducts experiments, Monitors momentum and motion, Calculates forces and distances, And determines the causes of change.
She designs electric circuits, Investigates magnetic fields, Utilizes inductors and capacitors, And reads research by other scientists.
I know an accomplished physicist, Who examines the conversion of energy, Solves problems about mass and charge, And speculates future events.
By M. d’Arnaud & MVSD Project Glad Team 2005
Magnetism and Electricity Home/School Connection #1
Find two objects that you think are magnetic and two that are nonmagnetic.
Sketch and label the objects. Bring them to class tomorrow.
MVSD El Monte, CA Project GLAD Team 2005
Magnetismo y Electricidad
Conecsiones del Hogar y la Escuela #1
Busca dos objetos que piensas que son magneticos y dos que no son magneticos. Dibujalos y nombralos. Traelos a clase manana.
MVSD El Monte, CA Project GLAD Team 2005
Magnetism and Electricity Home/School Connection #2
Ask an adult at home to give two examples of matter that they use at home or at work. Sketch and label those examples.
MVSD El Monte, CA Project GLAD Team 2005
Magnetismo y Electricidad
Conecsiones del Hogar y la Escuela #2
Preguntale a un adulto en casa que te den dos ejemplos de material. Dibujalos y nombralos.
MVSD El Monte, CA Project GLAD Team 2005
Magnetism and Electricity Home/School Connection #3
Tell an adult at home about the legend of Magnes. Remember to include who, what, when, where, and why in your retelling. Sketch and write your favorite part of the legend of Magnes.
MVSD El Monte, CA Project GLAD Team 2005
Magnetismo y Electricidad
Conecsiones del Hogar y la Escuela #3
Cuentale a un adulto acerca de la leyenda de Magnes. Cuando cuentas la leyenda incluye quien, que, cuando, donde, y por que. Dibuja y escribe tu parte favorito de la leyenda de Magnes.
MVSD El Monte, CA Project GLAD Team 2005
Expert Groups Static Electricity
Definition When electrical charges have built up on the surface of an object, static electricity is created. For example, when a balloon is rubbed against your hair, electric charges build up on the surfaces of the balloon and your hair. | |
Components (parts) All matter is made up of tiny particles. Some of these particles carry units of electricity called electric charges. These charges can be positive (+) or negative (-). Most matter is neutral, which means that the number of positive charges and negative charges are equal. Only negative (- ) charges can move from one material to another. When charges transfer from one neutral object to another, the first object is left with a positive (+) charge. The second one has gained negative (-) charges. Therefore, it has a negative charge. | |
Properties Like charges repel, or push away, one another. Unlike charges attract, or pull toward, each other. Eventually, electrically charged objects will lose their “charge”. These charges may simply leak away slowly into the air. Charges may also “jump” between materials. When electric charges move off of a charged object, an electric discharge takes place. This is called static electricity. | |
Contributing Scientists In 1752, Benjamin Franklin conducted a famous experiment in which he attached a metal key to a kite. Franklin flew this kite during a thunder storm and proved that lightning is indeed static electricity. He showed that lightning occurs when there is a positive (+) build up at the top of the storm clouds. The negative charges build up at the bottom of the clouds. These negative charges repel the negative charges on the ground, making it and any surrounding objects positively charged. Because opposite charges attract, the negative charges from the cloud “jump” toward the closest positively charged object creating a GIANT electrical discharge. This discovery led to Franklin’s invention of the lightning rod. The rod is attached to the top of buildings and is connected to the ground by heavy wires. It is through these wires that the electric charge can safely move toward the ground. | |
Applications Today, static electricity is useful in our everyday life. For example, as a form of pollution control, an electric static precipitator is used to charge dirt particles in the air and then collect them. People use products such as hair diffusers to dry curly hair, air purifiers (ionizers), photocopiers and paint guns, all of which use static electricity. | |
Adapted from HM Science Discovery Works Gr. 4
Definition Electricity is a form of energy produced by the movement of electrons. When there is a steady flow of electrons (negative charges) through a given path, an electric current is created. This path that the current travels through is called an electric circuit. | |
Properties Electric currents travel easily through various forms of matter such as water and metal. These materials are called conductors. Metals such as gold, silver and copper are good conductors of electricity. Materials that are poor conductors are known as insulators. Wood, rubber, plastic, glass and cork are a few examples. Copper wires that are used to carry electric currents are coated with rubber. This rubber serves as an insulator. The insulator helps maintain the strength of the electric current within the wire and it also protects us from receiving an electric shock. | |
Components (parts) / Contributing Scientists Electricity flows through Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC). In a direct current, electricity flows continuously in one direction. Electric cells and batteries for flashlights are examples of DC. Thomas Edison’s first power plant could only transmit Direct Current (DC) power over one square mile. It was transmitted through thick dangerous cables. Edison’s direct current power was not safe for homes, schools or buildings because it produced too much voltage (amount of electricity) at once.
Nikola Tesla, a Croatian physicist who came to America, found a solution to Edison’s problem. Tesla discovered that an Alternating Current (AC) could transmit electricity more efficiently at high voltages over great distances. In an Alternating Current (AC), the electricity flows one way around a circuit and then quickly switches back around in the opposite direction at a rate of fifty times per second. Tesla taught Edison about AC and explained that the voltage could easily be decreased to safe levels through transformers for daily use. The electricity in our homes and schools is AC. | |
Applications Computers, video games, TVs and radios all rely on components that control, change and manipulate electric currents. In fact, we depend on electric currents to supply energy to just about everything we use in our daily lives. | |
Adapted from HM Science Discovery Works Gr. 4
An electromagnet is a powerful temporary magnet that is made when an electric current passes through a wire coiled around a piece of ferromagnetic material, often an iron core. In an electromagnet, electricity is used to create magnetism. | |
Components (parts) When an electric current moves through a wire, the wire becomes surrounded a magnetic field. The magnetic field of the current is comprised of concentric circles, centered on the wire and lying in the plane perpendicular to the current. By tightly winding the wire many times around the magnetic field becomes stronger and more concentrated. If this is done around a cylinder, a solenoid coil with a magnetic field similar to a bar magnet is created. When an iron core is placed inside the wire coil, the magnetic field is strengthened, and the result is an electromagnet. | |
Interesting Facts/ Contributing Scientists One can find the direction by using the right hand rule. By pointing the thumb on your right hand along the direction of the current, the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field. The scientist, Ampere discovered that the magnetic fields of two parallel currents cause an attraction between each other. | |
Properties An electromagnet is similar to a natural magnet is some ways. First, they both attract materials that contain iron and certain other metals. Next, they both have north and south poles. Electromagnets also have magnetic fields. Electromagnets and permanent magnets differ in several ways. First, the strength of an electromagnet can be controlled by changing the amount of current flowing through the wire coil. Next, an electromagnet can be turned on and off. Finally, the connections of an electromagnet to a dry cell (battery) can be switched to make the current reverse directions. A compass will show that the poles of the magnet have been reversed. This reversing of poles explains the operation of electric motors. | |
Contributing Scientists Until 1819, everyone believed that magnetism and electricity were completely separate. In 1819, Danish physicist Hans Oersted discovered that an electric current passing through a wire caused a nearby compass needle to deflect, or move. | |
Applications | |
Electromagnets have many useful applications. Enormous, strong electromagnets are used in recycling plants to separate cans made of steel from those made of aluminum. Our homes are filled with items that use them. Doorbells, telephones, VCRs and cassette players have electro- magnets. When a doorbell is pressed, a circuit closes and the electromagnet pulls on a hammer which strikes a bell. Electric motors rely on electromagnets as well. These motors run clocks, fans, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and hair dryers. Electric Circuits
Definition and Properties For electricity to be useful, it must flow through a continuous, open path. This path along which negative electric charges can flow is called a circuit. The flow of electrons in a circuit is similar to the water flow in a pipe. The circuit gives the electrons a path in which to flow. The amount of electricity in a circuit depends upon current, voltage and resistance. Current is the rate of the flow of electrons. Voltage is the force that causes it to flow. Finally, resistance is the property that slows or stops the flow of electrons. | |
Components (parts) There are three types of electric circuits. The simple circuit is the easiest to build. It begins with a source of electric charges such as a battery (dry cell). A light bulb or other device is then connected to the cell with one copper wire while another copper wire connects the bulb or other device back to the cell. | |
Another type of circuit is a series circuit. In the series circuit, the same materials are used along with additional light bulbs and a power switch all strung in a row, much like holiday lights. | |
The parallel circuit is the third type of electric circuit. The same materials are used, but they are connected differently. In a parallel circuit, each bulb or device is directly connected to the battery thus providing each bulb with its own path for electricity to flow to it. Parallel circuits are used in our schools and homes. A switch controls the flow of electricity through the circuit. When the switch is open, the current cannot flow. If the switch is closed, the current can flow. | |
Contributing Scientists Thomas Edison is primarily responsible for the distribution of electricity to factories, offices and homes. In 1879, while living in New Jersey, Edison worked on perfecting the electric light. He spent two years searching for the proper filament to provide adequate resistance. After over 7,000 attempts, he succeeded at inventing the electric light bulb. In 1882, Edison and his colleagues had cables installed to neighboring cities in order to distribute electricity to them. | |
Applications Electric circuits have enabled us to carry out many of our everyday tasks. Our cities, homes, businesses and schools are all supplied electricity through circuits. It is because of these circuits that we are able to light up dark places, watch TV, play video games and store food in our refrigerators. We have truly become a world dependant on the inventions and discoveries of physicists! | |
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