Enzymes

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May 19, 2016 ... Dilek Austin, Ph.D. Baking Technical Services. Novozymes North America, Franklinton, NC. TIA 2016 Annual Convention and Trade Exposition.
ENZYMES in TORTILLAS and FLAT BREADS Dilek Austin, Ph.D. Baking Technical Services Novozymes North America, Franklinton, NC TIA 2016 Annual Convention and Trade Exposition May 19th, 2016

Agenda Introduction to Enzymes

Enzymes in FLOUR tortillas Enzymes in CORN tortillas

Enzymes in FLAT BREADS Q&A

Introduction to Enzymes

Where do the enzymes come from ?

4

An example:

Enzymes can increase efficiency, profit, and reduce waste

Enzymes are natural ​Active proteins ​In all living organisms • Plant • Animal

• Microorganisms-fungal, bacterial

​Specific

​Works under mild conditions ​Can replace/reduce chemicals

How enzymes work

Important process parameters for enzymes pH

Temperature

Contact time

Water

Inhibitors

pH effect

Enzyme dosage

Substrate

Oxygen

Temperature effect

Stabilizers

Enzymes maintains tortilla freshness ​Stale tortillas/flat breads are firm and they crack when folded, become unacceptable to consumers ​Enzymes can; • Extend shelf-life

• Improve dough handling and machinability • Enhance mixing tolerance • Can replace/reduce chemicals

Enzymes in FLOUR tortillas

FLOUR tortillas ​Short baking time ​Stale fast ​Maintenance of flexibility is important

​Shortenings, emulsifiers, vital gluten, dough relaxers are critical ​Consumers desire less ingredients ​Clean label is vital

Enzymes used in FLOUR tortillas Fresh keeping

Maintenance of softness, flexibility and moistness of tortillas up to six months

Ingredient reduction/replacement

Enzymes

L-cystein/SMS

Alpha-amylase

Gums Emulsifiers

Vital gluten

FLOUR tortillas ​Six weeks-old tortillas ​With enzymes: Flexible, no cracking ​Without enzymes: Undesirable cracks

Novozymes internal data

Novozymes NEW enzyme maintains the flexibility for FIVE-months

No enzyme

Novozymes internal data

Alpha-amylase

Novozymes NEW ALPHA-AMYLASE -INCREASING dosages INCREASES extensibility

%extensibility maintenance

Four week-old flour tortillas % maintained mechanical extensibility compared to freshly baked 100 80 60

70

74

225 ppm Alphaamylase

315 ppm Alphaamylase

76

4 weeks

45

40

20 0 without enzyme

Novozymes internal data

410 ppm Alphaamylase

Novozymes NEW enzyme makes tortillas STRONGER and MORE EXTENSIBLE at four week-storage

New enzyme

Strong and more extensible 400 350

250 Force

No enzyme Equipment: TA.XT2-Tortilla Burst Rig

Novozymes internal data

4 weeks

300

Breaks easily, not extensible

200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100

10

20

30 Time/sec

40

50

Alpha-amylase maintains high rollability scores during four-week storage without enzymes Flexible

5.0

5 5

5

Alpha-amylase

5 4.6

4.5

Rollability scores (1 to 5)

4.2

NOT flexible

4.5

4.0

4 weeks

3.4 3.0

2.5 2.1

2.0

1.5

1.0 1

3

7 14 Storage days

A study by Texas A&M University. Determining the Role of Starch in Flour Tortilla Staling Using α-Amylase J. Novie Alviola and Ralph D. Waniska. Cereal Chemistry. May/June 2008, Volume 85, Number 3

21

28

Four-week old tortillas INCREASING dosages INCREASES FLEXIBILITY

Rollability scores (1-5)

Flexible

NOT flexible

5.0

4.5

4.0

4.8

5.0

3.7

3.0 2.0 1.0 without enzyme 150 ppm Alpha- 250 ppm Alpha- 350 ppm Alphaamylase amylase amylase

Novozymes internal data

4 weeks

Enzymes in CORN tortillas

CORN tortillas ​Short baking time ​Stale faster than flour tortillas ​Maintenance of flexibility is important ​Gums are critical ​Consumers desire STRONG and FLEXIBLE tortillas

Enzymes used in CORN tortillas Fresh keeping

Enzymes

Maintenance of softness and flexibility of tortillas

Alpha-amylase

Reduction of masa stickiness

Lipase

Processing ease

CORN tortillas ​Ten day-old tortillas ​With enzymes: Flexible, no cracking ​Without enzymes: undesirable cracks

Two-week old corn tortillas

Force to break the tortilla with Texture Analyzer Stronger

899.5

900 762.2

​Maltogenic amylase improves corn tortilla strength during storage

700

Rollability scores (1-5) at room temperature

500

40 ppm Alpha-amylase

40 ppm Alpha-amylase

day 5

day 11

​Maltogenic amylase help to decrease the CMC in the formula

5.0 4.0 3.0

2.0 1.0

2.3

2.3

0.5% CMC

0.25% CMC+30 ppm Alpha-amylase



1.2 without enzyme

Combining Maltogenic Amylase with CMC or Wheat Gluten to Prevent Amylopectin Recrystallization and Delay Corn Tortilla Staling Francisco J. Bueso , Lloyd W. Rooney , Ralph D. Waniska , and Laura Silva. Cereal Chemistry. September/October 2004, Volume 81 (5)

Sticky dough

Dough stickiness (g)

Masa dough

100 80 60

50 30

40 Nonsticky dough

Hard dough

40

40

40 ppm Alphaamylase

20 ppm Lipase

35

20 0

without enzyme

20 ppm Alphaamylase

40 ppm Lipase

Firmness (g force) 100 80

75 61

60

70

40

Soft dough

20 0 without enzyme

Novozymes internal data-Equipment: TA.XT2

20 ppm Alpha-amylase

40 ppm Lipase

​Less sticky and softer corn masa obtained with an Alpha-amylase and a Lipase

Enzymes in FLAT BREADS

FLAT BREADS ​Difficult to retain softness even for one day Quickly becomes stale and chewy No technology offers longer freshness

Reheating of frozen flat bread results in a very dry and elastic bread ​Maintenance of softness is important ​Enzymes can help to retain the softness

Enzymes used in FLAT BREADS Fresh keeping

Enzymes

Maintenance of softness and flexibility of flat breads

Alpha-amylase

Bacterial alpha-amylase Lipases

Lipases

Alpha-amylase maintains and improves flat bread softness for three days Very flexible

Day 1

9

Day 3 8.3 7.2

7

5

6.8

6.2

5

5

3 Breaks

1

without enzyme Novozymes internal data

5 ppm Alpha-amylase

10 ppm Alpha-amylase

A Lipase makes softer Naan dough; softer final product at four-hour after baking Naan instrumental softness (% softness compare to without enzyme)

Naan dough softness Softer

Softer

10

120

8

8

100

6

128 100

80

5

60

4

40

2 Firmer

140

20

0 without enzyme

Novozymes internal data

250 ppm Lipase

Firmer

0 without enzyme

250 ppm Lipase

FROZEN Naan -A lipase gives 22% more mechanical and sensorial softness compared to those without enzymes after 40 days of storage under frozen condition at -20 0C Softer

Softer

10

140

8 6

120

7

100

5

100

80 60

4

40

2 Firmer

122

20 0

0 no enzymes

Novozymes internal data

250 ppm Lipase

Firmer

no enzymes

250 ppm Lipase

Chapatti made with a Lipase showed excellent dough property and better softness no enzymes Firmer

250 ppm lipase

700 600

585

546

500 400

393

391

300

200 100 Softer

0 30 min after baking

Novozymes internal data

3 hrs after baking

Enzymes are natural ​Enzymes can

​Maintain freshly baked quality of tortillas/flat breads ​Improve dough handling and machinability Enhance mixing tolerance ​Replace/reduce chemicals

A good source for enzymes and tortillas

http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/store/pages/27885.aspx

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