How do you draw a network diagram in a network drawing ... What is a network topology? b) ... Why is traffic shaping a more general tool than just being a way ...
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Test Your Understanding 1. a) Why must networking professionals be concerned with the SLC rather than the SDLC? b) Why is a focus on information systems insufficient in networking? 2. a) Compare trends in network demand and network budgets. b) What are the implications of these trends? 3. a) What is what-is analysis? b) List the four driving forces for change. c) For each, give an example not listed in the text. d) What is gaps analysis? e) Why is it necessary to create a project portfolio? f) What are legacy decisions, and why must projects that involve legacy decisions be judged with great care? 4. a) What are QoS metrics? (Do not just spell out the acronym.) b) How are QoS metrics used? 5. a) In what units is transmission speed normally measured? b) Is speed normally measured in bits per second or bytes per second? c) Give the names and abbreviations for speeds in increasing factors of 1,000. d) What is 55,000,000,000 bps with a metric prefix? e) Write out 100 kbps in bits per second (without a metric prefix). f) Write the following speeds properly: 0.067 Mbps, 23,000 kbps, and 48.62 Gbps. 6. a) Distinguish between rated speed and throughput. b) Distinguish between individual and aggregate throughput. 7. a) What is availability? b) What is downtime? c) What are the “five nines”? d) Does corporate network availability usually meet the five-nines expectation of the telephone network? e) What are packets? f) Distinguish between the packet error rate and the bit error rate. g) When should error rates be measured? Why? h) What is latency? i) In what units is latency measured? j) What is jitter? k) For what applications is jitter a problem? l) How does application response time differ from latency? m) Why is application response time difficult to improve? 8. a) What are service level agreements? b) Does an SLA measure the best case or the worst case? c) Would an SLA specify highest latency or lowest latency? d) Would an SLA specify a lowest availability or a highest availability? e) What happens if a carrier does not meet its SLA guarantee? f) If carrier speed falls below its guaranteed speed in an SLA, under what circumstances will the carrier not have to pay a penalty to the customers? 9. How do you draw a network diagram in a network drawing program?
10. Do a three-site traffic analysis. Site X attaches to Site Y, which attaches to Site Z. Site X is 130 meters east of Site Y. Site Z is 180 meters west of Site Y. Site X needs to be able to communicate with Site Y at 3 Gbps Mbps. Site Y needs to be able to communicate with Site Z at 1 Gbps. Site X needs to be able to communicate with Site Z at 700 Mbps. Supply your picture giving the analysis. You may want to do this in Office Visio or Windows Draw; then paste it into your homework. a) What traffic capacity will you need between Sites X and Y? b) Between Y and Z?
11. a) What is the purpose of redundancy in transmission lines?
b) If the line between R and S fails in Figure 4-13, how much capacity will the line between Q and S need?
c) What about the line between Q and R? 12. a) What is a network topology? b) At what layer do we find topologies? c) In what topology are there only two nodes? d) In what topologies is there only a single path between any two end nodes? e) In what topology are there usually many paths between any two end nodes? f) In what topology is broadcasting used? g) What topologies can be used in complex networks? 13. a) What is the advantage of a full-mesh leased line network? b) What is the disadvantage? c) What is the advantage of a pure hub-and-spoke leased line network? d) What is the disadvantage? e) Do most leased line networks use a full-mesh or a pure hub-and- spoke topology? Explain. 14. A company has three sites: Micah, Mallory, and William. Micah and Mallory need 100 Mbps of transmission capacity between them. Mallory and William need 200 Mbps of transmission capacity between them. Micah and William need 300 Mbps of transmission capacity between them. a) Create a hub-and-spoke network with Micah as the hub. What links will there be, and how fast will they need to be? Explain your reasoning. b) For the same situation, create a full-mesh network. What speeds will the links need to have if you are not concerned with redundancy in case of line failure? Explain you reasoning. c) Building on the last part of this question, add redundancy so that a failure of the line between Mallory and William will not bring down the network. (Hint: DTP.) 15. a) How long is a momentary traffic peak? b) Distinguish between overprovisioning and priority. c) Distinguish between priority and QoS guarantees. d) What problem can QoS create? e) How is traffic shaping different from traditional approaches to handling momentary traffic overloads? f) In what two ways can traffic shaping reduce traffic? 16. a) Why is traffic shaping a more general tool than just being a way to handle momentary traffic peaks? b) Why can compression help in traffic management? c) What makes compression possible? 17. Why was the design in Figure 4-19 selected? 18. a) Why is network simulation valuable? b) What capability does IT Guru have that Visio does not? 19. a) Should products that fail to meet minimum requirements be dropped from consideration? b) In what two ways can solutions fail to be scalable? 20. a) What is the make-versus-buy decision? b) For routers and switches, do firms usually make or buy? c) We are considering products A, B, and C. Our criteria are price, performance, and reliability with weights of 20 percent, 40 percent, and 40 percent, respectively. Product A’s evaluation scores on these three criteria are 8, 6, and 6, respectively. For B, the values are 6, 8, and 8. For C, they are 7, 7, and 7. Present a multicriteria analysis of the decision problem, in tabular form and showing all work. Interpret the table. 21. a) What period of a network’s life does the SDLC cover? b) Why are hardware and software base prices often misleading? c) List the four categories of SDLC costs. d) Why must user costs in development be considered? 22. a) Distinguish between the systems development life cycle and the systems life cycle. b) What is the total cost of ownership (TCO)? c) Why should operating and management costs be considered in addition to hardware, software, and transmission costs in purchasing decisions? d) What additional cost factor comes into SLC costs, compared to SDLC costs? 23. a) For what is OAM&P an abbreviation in ongoing management? b) Distinguish between operations and maintenance. c) What is provisioning? d) When may reprovisioning be necessary? e) When may deprovisioning be necessary? f) Into which of the four categories would you classify the task of comparing the inventory of parts with the inventory list on the computer? 24. a) List the main elements in SNMP. b) Does the manager communicate directly with the managed device? Explain. c) Distinguish between Get and Set commands. d) Where does the manager store the information it receives from Get commands? e) What kinds of messages can agents initiate?
Thought Questions 1. Assume that an average SNMP response message is 100 bytes long. Assume that a manager sends 40 SNMP Get commands each second. a) What percentage of a 100 Mbps LAN link’s capacity would the resulting response traffic represent? b) What percentage of a 128 kbps WAN link would the response messages represent? c) What can you conclude from your answers to this question? 2. The telephone network has long boasted that it has the “five nines”—99.999% availability. a) How much downtime is this per year? Express downtime in days, hours, minutes, etc. as appropriate. b) How much downtime is there per year with 99% availability?
Perspective Questions 1. What was the most surprising thing you learned in this chapter? 2. What was the most difficult part of this chapter for you?
Business Data Networking and Telecommunications, 8th Edition, Panko and Panko