MLA, 8th edition - UCO Library

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MLA Style 8th Edition

This handout provides a quick reference guide to the basic citation rules of MLA Style. Information for this guide came from: MLA Handbook 8th edition, Modern Language Association of America, 2016. Available at the library reference desk. More resources: MLA Style Center: https://style.mla.org/ OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab): https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ Pellissippi College Style Guide: http://lib.pstcc.edu/citation/mla Sample MLA paper: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20090701095636_747.pdf

Citing Sources in your paper (See pages 117-128 in the handbook) •



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The goal of the in text citation is to guide the reader to the corresponding entry in the works cited list usually with the author and page number. One or both of these elements may be in parentheses. If citing an entire work, the handbook suggests that the name of the author appear in the text, rather than in a parenthetical reference. If an electronic source has no page numbers but does have paragraph numbers, give the relevant number along with the abbreviation “par.” or “pars.” If an electronic source has no page or paragraph numbers, cite the work in its entirety. In all cases, whenever you cite something in-text, you must include the full citation in the list of works cited at the end of the paper. There is no punctuation after the author’s name in parentheses, and any punctuation that the sentence requires goes outside the parentheses. Here are a few examples from the handbook: o This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85). o Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-15), hold the opposite point of view. o It may be true that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance…” (Robertson 136). o “The debut of Julius Caesar,” according to Sohmer, “proclaimed Shakespeare’s Globe a theater of courage and ideas” (par. 44). o Fukuyama’s Our Posthuman Future includes many examples of this trend. For citing poems, use the line number instead of page number in-text: (lines 5-8), subsequently (10-11). If citing audio or video, include time range ex: (”Buffy” 00:03:24-45)

Works Cited Page •

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All citations, regardless of format follow the same template: Author. Title of Source. Title of container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Elements 3-9 (the “Container” and following) may be repeated. See the last page of this handout. In titles, capitalize the first, last, and all principal words. Italicize the title of a book/magazine/newspaper/etc., but not the period following the title. Titles of articles or any other items contained within a larger work are enclosed in quotation marks. The heading (centered, no italics/bold/underline) on the separate page of sources should be Works Cited. Each page should be numbered, continuing the page numbers of the text. Each entry starts at the left margin. If there is more than one line, each subsequent line should be indented one half inch (“hanging indent” in the Paragraph menu of Microsoft Word) or 5 spaces. Double space the entire list, both between and within entries (this will not be done on this handout). The list should be alphabetized by author’s last name. If there is no author, start with the title.

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Books • Single author Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. Farrar, 2002. • Two authors – When a source has two authors, include them in order in which they appear. Doris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins, 1999. •

Three or more authors – When a source has three or more authors, list the first author followed by a comma and et al. (Latin for and others) Plag, Ingo, et al. Introduction to English Linguistics. Mouton, 2007. • Corporate author American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Random, 1989. •

Book with translator, editor, or other contributors – Other common contributors: Directed by, Adapted by, Edited by, Introduction by, Performance by, etc. Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles, Viking, 1996. • Work in an anthology Cancian, Francesca M. “The Feminization of Love.” Women and Romance: A Reader, edited by Susan Ostrov Weisser, New York UP, 2001, pp. 189-204. •

Entire anthology or compilation – when an editor is responsible for creating the entire work, follow their name with their role. Tallett, Frank, and D.J.B. Trim, editors. European Warfare, 1350-1750. Cambridge UP, 2010. Note: use only UP when referring to university presses (e.g. Cambridge UP or U of Chicago P) •

Entire online book – Include sponsor of site or database (a second container) and retrieval information if needed. Include the URL or Doi. Child, L. Maria editor. The Freedman’s Book. Ticknor and Fields, 1866. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=dccSAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Michel, Francois Emile, et al. Pieter Brugel. Parkstone International, 2014. ProQuest ebrary, http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ucok/detail.action?docID=10556254. • Part of an online book – include the page number(s) after the date of publication using p. or pp. Collins, Lindsey. “Landscapes of Gendered Violence: Male Love and Anxiety on the Railroad.” The Philosophy of the Wester, U of Kentucky P, 2010. pp. 89-110. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2jcn17.8. •

Book with no author or editor – When no author is given, omit this element and start the citation with the title. Encyclopedia of Virginia. Somerset, 1993. • Book with more than one edition Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Edited by F. N. Robinson, 2nd Ed., Houghton, 1957. • Multivolume work – if you consult one volume, include the volume number. Blanco, Richard L., editor. The American Revolution, 1775–1783: An Encyclopedia. Vol 2. Garland, 1993. Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2nd ed., vol. 2, Oxford UP, 2002.

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Periodicals • Journal, magazine, or newspaper article Mann, Susan. “Myths of Asian Womanhood.” Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 59, 2000, pp. 835-62. Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 3-4, 1981, pp. 77-80. Dates should be given as fully as they appear in your source (ex. Spring 2008). Belton, John. “Painting by Numbers: The Digital Intermediate.” Film Quarterly, vol. 61, no. 3, Spring 2008, pp.5865. Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.” Business Week, 6 May 2002, pp. 94-96. Chang, Kenneth. “The Melting (Freezing) of Antarctica.” New York Time, 2 Apr. 2002, late ed., p. A1. If a work in a periodical is not printed in consecutive pages, include only the first page with a +. •

Article in a newspaper, journal, or magazine, from a subscription database – a database is considered a 2nd container. Include the name of the database and the URL. When possible, use the doi (digital object identifier). Crary, David. “Adoption Disasters Spur Calls for Support Before and After Kids Are Taken In.” Washington Post, 7 Oct. 2013, p. A15. LexisNexis Academic, www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=59HP-GK01-JBFWC31T&csi=270944,270077,11059,8411&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true. Dailey, Thomas F. “Believing in Baseball: The Religious Power of Our National Pastime.” Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture, vol. 6, no. 2, Spring 2003, pp. 63-83. Project Muse, doi: 10.1353/log.2003.0019. • Article on a website – Include the URL but leave off the http:// Mooallem, Jon. “The Amateur Cloud Society That (Sort of) Rattled the Scientific Community.” New York Times Magazine, 4 May 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/05/08/magazine/the-amateur-cloud-society-that-sortof-rattled-the-scientific-community.html?_r=0. •

A review published in a journal –When citing a book review, include that in the description. If there is a title of the review, include that as well. Armstrong, Grace. Review of Fortune’s Faces: The Roman de la Rose and the Poetics of Contingency, by Daniel Heller-Roazen. Bryn Mawr Review of Comparative Literature, vol. 6 no. 1, Winter 2007, www.brynmawr.edu/bmrcl/Winter2007/Fortune.htm. Seitz, Matt Zoller. “Live in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living.” Review of Radiant City, directed by Gary Burns and Jim Brown, New York Times, 30 May 2007, p. E1.

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Other Sources MLA 8th Edition recommends that you include the item’s URL but if your instructor prefers that you not use them, follow his or her directions. Omit http://. An access date is optional, but can be an important element especially for online sources that have no date specifying when it was produced or published. • Web page with an author Davis, Phil. “Post Open Access Sting: An Interview with John Bohannon.” The Scholarly Kitchen, 12 Nov 2013, scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2013/11/12/post-open-access-sting-an-interview-with-john-bohannon/. • Web page with no author “Berlin Wall.” The History Channel, 2009, www.history.com/topics/cold-war/berlin-wall, Accessed 4 May 2016. • Website (Whole site) Farkas, Meredith. Information Wants to Be Free. Jun. 2015, meredith.wolfwater.com. • Web page with no date Frisbie, Chelsea. “3D Printing Vending Machines Aim to Customize Your Food.” Mashable, mashable.com/2016/05/05/3d-printing-vending-machines/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-subst#kuNRCXzQHZqs. Accessed 4 May 2016. • Video or audio file Anderson, Chris. “TED’s Secret to Great Public Speaking.” TED Talks, March 2016, www.ted.com/talks/chris_anderson_teds_secret_to_great_public_speaking#. Beyonce‘. “Pretty Hurts.” Beyonce‘, Parkwood Entertainment, 2013, www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs. • YouTube video If use a source that was posted on a website, include the date it was posted and the person who posted it. “Stacy: Attack of the Schoolgirl Zombies: Trailer.” YouTube, uploaded by JimDanger, 6 Jan. 2007, www.youtube.com/watch?v=HX4t8XYJgS0. • Television Episode If you discuss a television show, film, or other collaborative work in a general way without focusing on an individual’s contribution, do not cite the author, director, etc. Include season and episode much like volume and issue of a periodical. The production company is considered the publisher. Accessed from an online source: “Under the Gun.” Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu, www.hulu.com/watch/511318. Accessed 4 May 2016. If you are writing about a key character or contributor, include them in your citation Accessed from a DVD: “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

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The Core Elements The new MLA Handbook provides a “universal set of guidelines” for citing sources across all format types. Follow this template to construct your citation.

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