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    1 History of Information Technology Spring 03 Scott Lee Information Technology tTools used to acquire, store, analyze, process, or transmit information.
Information Technology History of Information Technology Spring 03 Scott Lee

tTools

used to acquire, store, analyze, process, or transmit information.

History t Sculpture & Carvings tEarliest tMade

discovered are about 32,000 years old of ivory, bone, horn, and stone

Ivory horse: ca. 30,000 B.C.

History t Cave Paintings t25,000

– 10,000 years old in more than 200 caves tMost in Spain and France tUsually depicted animals and symbols with occasional human figures tUsed minerals as pigments and mixed with animal fat tFound

“Venus of Willendorf” ca. 30,000 – 25,000 B.C.

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Lascaux, France Around 28,000 B.C.

Lascaux, France Around 28,000 B.C.

History t Writing tCuneiform tA

Pictographic form of writing Sumeria

tProbably originated in tOldest

discovered writings ca. 3,000 BC written vertically then horizontally

tOriginally tCarved

into clay tablets which were then baked longer spoken after 2,000 BC but continued as a written language up to about 100 BC

tNo

Counting Stones: About 9,000 years old

History t Writing tCuneiform tProbably originated in tOriginally tOldest

Sumeria written vertically then horizontally

discovered writings ca. 3,000 BC into clay tablets which were then baked

tCarved tNo

longer spoken after 2,000 BC but continued as a written language up to about 100 BC

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History t Writing tPapyrus tFirst

used in Egypt ca. 2700 BC from the Papyrus reed which grew around the Nile River tPrimary writing material in Egypt for over 2200 years tMade

From: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language

Lease – 154 B.C. Feb. 22 Business Letter - 97 B.C. July 19

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History t Alphabet tFirst

developed between 1700 – 1500 BC in eastern Mediterranean tThe first alphabet is called North Semitic which developed from Cuneiform and Hieroglyphics

Novel

Greek Alphabet

Greek Alphabet Alpha

Beta

Paper t Invented between100 BC – t Credited

105 AD to Ts'ai Lun of China (105 AD)

tA

eunuch of the emperor Ho Ti during the Han Dynasty tBecame wealthy but ultimately committed suicide

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Paper t Before paper, books in China were made from

bamboo (heavy) or silk (expensive) t Made from mulberry bark, linen, hemp, and plant fibers that is beaten, soaked and laid out on a bamboo frame to dry

Paper t Spread to Korea and Japan by 6th century t 751 - Chinese

papermakers are taken P.O.W. by Arabs and teach them to make paper t Appeared in Egypt by 800 t 1009 - Arabs rule Spain and bring papermaking to Europe t 1150 – First paper mill built in Spain

Johannes Gutenberg

Paper t 1411 –

Papermaking spreads through Italy, France and Germany t Germans become finest papermakers in Europe t Book production in Europe is primarily done in monasteries by hand or through use of wood engravings

Johannes Gutenberg

t 1400?-1468 t German t Mid

1400’s - Invented the mechanized printing and created the mass production of books t Able to produce books faster and cheaper than any other method available

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Gutenberg Bible t Printed

around 1454 t Also called the 42-line bible t The first mass-produced book in Europe t Approximately 180 copies made t 48 copies still exist. Most in libraries and museums. t British National Library has two complete books

Gutenberg Press t Early

printers have difficulty making money and printed mainly religious materials as the church was a reliable source of income t Gutenberg lost his press and other equipment to foreclosure

Printing Printing has spread to most of Europe cities such as Paris and London became the centers of printing as there were more customers t 1539 - First printing press in the “New World” in Mexico City, Mexico by Juan Pablos

Printing in America

t 1475 –

t 1638- First printing press in the Colonies in

t Large

Cambridge, Massachusetts t Controlled by the government, it only printed laws, religious works and other government jobs t 1700 – A few more presses were around in Boston, New York and Philadelphia t Most reading was imported from Europe

Printing in America

Printing in America

t England imposed censorship restrictions on the

t Protestant

Colonies t All publications had to be approved by the government before they could be printed t Newspapers had to be approved by the government until 1720

t Puritans

belief in the importance of literacy believed in individualism: Self-discipline, self-responsibility, and dedication to the work ethic t The individual was responsible for their own conscience and salvation

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Printing in America t Printing grew in size and importance with the

coming of the American Revolution

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