Prebles' Artforms

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Jan 8, 2012 ... Page 1. Prebles' Artforms. An Introduction to the Visual Arts. CHAPTER. ELEVENTH EDITION. Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition.
Prebles' Artforms An Introduction to the Visual Arts ELEVENTH EDITION

CHAPTER

7

Painting

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives 1. Distinguish the pigment, binder, vehicle, and support in paintings. 2. Compare the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of paint media and techniques. 3. Define terms used to describe painting processes, materials, and effects. 4. Identify representative works of art to show characteristics of each medium. 5. Contrast the use of airbrushes and animated pictures to traditional painting techniques.

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Introduction • Gerhard Richter's Abstract Painting  Medium and process of its application impart message

• "Art" signifying "painting" for much of the Western world • From the earliest cave paintings with natural pigments to ground pigments in the seventeenth century • High-quality paints in today's world Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Gerhard Richter. Abstract Painting. 1984. Oil on canvas. 17" × 23-5/8". © the artist. [Fig. 7-1] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Ingredients and Surfaces • Three ingredients of all paint  Pigment  Binder  Vehicle

• Pigments provide color.  Usually in the form of fine powder • Lita Albuquerque's Wind Painting illustrates its dusty nature.

 Must be stable while drying Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Lita Albuquerque. Wind Painting 01.08.12, 1:10:44pm PST. 2012. Pigment on canvas. 72" × 114". Courtesy of the artist and Craig Krull Gallery, Santa Monica, California. [Fig. 7-2] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Ingredients and Surfaces • Pigments provide color.  Must resist fading over time  Advances in chemical industry in 19th and 20th centuries allowed for synthetic pigments in a range of stable colors.

• Binders hold pigment particles together.  Oil paint contains linseed oil.  Tempera paint contains egg yolk. Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Ingredients and Surfaces • Vehicles make paint a liquid and can be further added for thinning.  Turpentine in oils and water in watercolors

• Support  Structure underneath the painting  Must be sealed • Sizing • Followed by a primer for uniform surface Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Watercolor • Pigments mixed with water as a vehicle and gum arabic as a binder • White rag paper most common support  Requires neither sizing nor priming

• A staining technique  Paint applied in thin, translucent washes  Highlights obtained by leaving areas of white paper unpainted  Opaque (nontranslucent) detailing Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Watercolor • Fluid spontaneity suited for outdoor impressions • John Singer Sargent  Notable American watercolorist  Rio de Santa Maria Formosa • Stains and highlights appear spontaneous • Use of dry brush

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Video: Studio Technique: Watercolor

John Singer Sargent. Rio de Santa Maria Formosa, Venice. 1905. Watercolor over graphite and pen and ink on wove paper. 1313/16" × 19-3/8". Gift of Mrs. Murray S. Danforth 42.223. Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence. Photography by Erik Gould. [Fig. 7-3] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Watercolor • Gouache  Opaque watercolor with a vehicle that includes fine chalk powder  Common in: • Book illustration of European Middle Ages • Traditional Persian art

 Popular for ease of use and low cost  Jacob Lawrence, Going Home from chapter 4 Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Watercolor • Chinese watercolor technique  Traditional modes • Frequent use of black ink without color, although color may be used • Painting descended from calligraphy

 Contemporary modes • Zhang Daqian's landscape painting • Over 6' tall • Borrows style from 12th-century Guo Xi Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Closer Look: Technique: Ink Painting

Zhang Daqian. Hidden Valley, After Guo Xi. 1962. Ink and color on paper. 76-1/4" × 40-1/8". Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.: Gift of the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, S1999.119. [Fig. 7-4]

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fresco • True fresco (buon fresco)  Pigments suspended in water applied to damp lime-plaster surface  Most modern frescoes utilize cartoons  Plaster dries quickly • Only the portion that can be painted that day is prepared. • Joints arranged along edges of major shapes Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Fresco • True fresco (buon fresco)  Rapid staining process • Lime forms calcium crystals that chemically bind pigment to wall

 Durable surface • Best suited to drier climatic zones

 Diego Rivera's Detroit Industry • Plaster texture shows through

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Video: Diego Rivera's Frescoes

Diego Rivera. Detroit Industry (detail). 1932–1933. Fresco. Detroit Institute of Arts, USA/The Bridgeman Art Library © 2013 Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F./Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 7-5] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Fresco • True fresco (buon fresco)  No changes can be made after paint is applied to plaster.  12–14 straight hours for 2 sq. yds  Ideal for large murals

• Fresco secco  On finished, dried lime-plaster wall  Tempera paint applied to surface  Often used for retouching Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Fresco • Popular in Renaissance Italy  Frescoes favored medium for painting on church walls  Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling

• Revival in Mexico in the 1920s  Government's support of the arts in public buildings  Detroit Industry a blend of tradition and contemporary subject matter Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Closer Look: Diego Rivera, Detroit Industry

Diego Rivera. Detroit Industry. 1932–1933. Fresco. Detroit Institute of Arts, USA/The Bridgeman Art Library © 2013 Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F./Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 7-6] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Forming Art • Diego Rivera: Creating Controversy  Man at the Crossroads • Contract originally for Rockefeller Center • Depicted Russian Communist leader Lenin clasping hands with laborers • Rockefeller would not compromise • Mural destroyed in NYC - Already 2/3 complete - Use of jackhammers to remove it

• Rebuilt in Mexico City Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Diego Rivera. Archive Photos/Getty Images. [Fig. 7-7] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Diego Rivera. Man at the Crossroads. 1934. Fresco. 16' × 37' 6". Museo del Palacio Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City. Banco de Mexico Trust. © 2013 Photo Art Resource/Bob Schalkwijk/Scala, Florence © 2013 Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F./Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 7-8] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Encaustic • Pigments suspended in hot beeswax  Wax as binder and vehicle

• Known to ancient Greeks • Flourished in Egypt during Roman colony period  Fayum portraits • Memorials to the deceased • Portrait of a Boy

• Temperature control necessary Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Portrait of a Boy. c. 100–150 CE. Encaustic on wood. 15" × 7-1/2". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Edward S. Harkness, 1918. Acc.n.: 18.9.2. © 2013. Image copyright The MoMA/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 7-9] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Tempera • Egg yolk (binder) mixed equally with pigment and thinned with water • Matte (not shiny) surface when dry • Gesso  Preferred ground for egg tempera  Chalky, water-based liquid

• Advantages  Achieving sharp lines and precise details Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Tempera • Disadvantages  Colors change during drying  Difficult to rework and not flexible  Requires pale underpainting

• The Story of Nastagio degli Onesti  Botticelli's early Renaissance work  Rich glow from thin layers of paint • Reddish colors Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Video: Studio Technique: Egg Tempera

Sandro Botticelli. The Story of Nastagio degli Onesti (I). 1483. Tempera on panel. 32-1/2" × 54-1/2". Museo Nacional del Prado/Oronoz. [Fig. 7-10]

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oil • Favored medium of Western art for five centuries • Linseed oil recipe perfected by fifteenth century Flemish artists • Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Madonna and Child with the Chancellor Rolin  Gesso-covered wood panel  Used glaze, or transparent film of color  Refined, detailed textures Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Discovering Art: Jan van Eyck, Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife: Detail 1

Video: Studio Technique: Making Oil Paint

Jan van Eyck. Madonna and child with the Chancellor Rolin. c. 1433–1434. Oil and tempera on panel. 26" × 24-3/8". Louvre Museum, Paris. Photograph: akg-images/Erich Lessing. [Fig. 7-11] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Oil • Advantages  Provides both increased opacity and, when thinned, greater transparency  Slow drying time  Pigments change little when drying  Flexible • Allows use of canvases

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oil • Application techniques  Impasto • Thick layers

 Thinned  Wet onto wet • Direct painting, completed at one sitting

 Wet onto dry

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oil • Tom Wudl's Rembrandt's Indulgence...     

Small work, 4" by 3" Direct painting Impasto near the top of the work Yellow paint thinned by turpentine Smoothed brushstrokes in the middle heighten trompe l'oeil quality

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Video: Studio Technique: Oil Painting

Tom Wudl. Rembrandt's Indulgence was Van Gogh's Dilemma. 1991. Oil on canvas. 4" × 3". © the artist. [Fig. 7-12]

Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oil • Joan Mitchell's untitled work  More spontaneous approach  Emotional states in abstract visual form  Two canvases unified by: • Colors chosen from two or three segments of the color wheel • Echo in composition

 Creates visual rhythm with quick, uniform brushstrokes Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Joan Mitchell. Untitled. 1987. Oil on canvas. Diptych. 102-3/8" × 157-1/2". Private collection. © Estate of Joan Mitchell. Image courtesy of the Joan Mitchell Foundation and Cheim & Read Gallery, New York. [Fig. 7-13] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Acrylic • Invented mid-twentieth century  Binder is acrylic polymer (synthetic)  Vehicle, water, more convenient than toxic turpentine

• Relatively permanent paints • Rapid drying time • Anne Truitt, Return  Application of layers on flat areas creates rich surface Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Anne Truitt. Return. 2004. Acrylic on wood. 81" × 8" × 8". Private Collection/annetruitt.org/The Bridgeman Art Library. [Fig. 7-14] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Contemporary Approaches • Airbrushes  Small-scale paint sprayers capable of projecting fine, controlled mist of paint  Even application without individual brush strokes • Subtle gradations of color

 Graffiti artists • Spray cans • Favor quickness of execution Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Contemporary Approaches • The works of Keltie Ferris  Layers do not necessarily harmonize in color or texture.  Sprayed dots cover more hand-made marks beneath

• Jeremy Blake, Sodium Fox  DVD collages combining film footage and stills with hand-painted elements  Dreamlike flow unified by a poem Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Keltie Ferris. ++++****)))). 2012. Oil, acrylic, and pastel on canvas. 80" × 100". Mitchell-Innes & Nash. [Fig. 7-12] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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Jeremy Blake. Sodium Fox. 2005. Still from digital animation. 14-minute continuous loop. Courtesy Kinz + Tillou Fine Art. [Fig. 7-16] Prebles' Artforms, Eleventh Edition Patrick Frank

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