Seed Corn Maggot Control

526kB Size 8 Downloads 19 Views

seedcorn maggot can infest the germinating seeds and roots of over 47 plant species. • Beans, soybeans, corn and peas are the most seriously damaged hosts.
Seed Corn Maggot Control

Seed corn maggot, Hylema cilicrura (Rondani); Diptera, Anthomyiidae

Maggot

Pupae The seedcorn maggot was identified in North America in 1855. It has been identified in all arable portions of North America from southern Canada into Mexico.

Host Plants • Feeding on decaying organic matter, the seedcorn maggot can infest the germinating seeds and roots of over 47 plant species. • Beans, soybeans, corn and peas are the most seriously damaged hosts. • To a lesser extent, crucifers, cereals, potato seed pieces, cucurbits, corn, tobacco, onions, pepper, buckwheat, and alfalfa are also injured by this pest.

• Seed corn maggot overwinter in the soil as pupae. The adult flies emerge from puparia at night or early in the morning and push themselves up to the soil surface. Adults benefit from a sugar source (flowering weeds/ honeydew).

• Each fertilized female lays an average of 270 eggs, singly or in small clusters. Moist, freshly disturbed soil, fields with decaying seed or crop remnants, and/or organically fertilized soils are all attractive to ovipositing female flies.

• Seedcorn maggots are pests of various seeds at germination. • Stand loss and damage is greatest during the cool, (and wet) springs period. • Decaying plant material attracts the adult flies where the females lay eggs.

• The first-generation adult flies emerge in early spring. These flies are grayish-brown to slightly greenish in color and about 1/5 inch long. The flies deposit their eggs in the soil where there is an abundance of decaying organic matter.

Carrots • Maggots make their way to the sprouting seeds where they bore into, feed on, and often destroy the cotyledons and growing point of the seed of young plants. The eggs hatch readily at temperatures as low as 50 degrees F. Larval and pupal development may continue at temperatures from the mid-50s on up.

• The full-grown maggots are yellowish-white, about 1/4 inch long, typically sharply pointed at head end, legless, and with a very tough skin, although they appear fragile. • Pupation takes about 2 weeks. • The life cycle can be completed in 3 weeks

Seed Treatments

Seed Treatments • Treatment cwt Lindane

Active Ingred.

Rate ai/ 0.125#

Gaucho

hexachlorocyclohexane imidacloprid

4.0 fl oz

Platinum

Thimethoxam

3.0 fl oz

Treated seeds were plated in replicated bands on 4/24/02

Evaluations • We counted the number of carrot seedlings in 10 three foot segments per plot on May 11 and May 31

May 13, 2002

ANOVA Table for seed/3 ft

Treatment Residual

DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value 4 3407.900 851.975 8.496 55 5515.083 100.274

P-Value Lambda Power <.0001 33.986 .999

Seedlings per 3 ft on 15 May 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Commercial Gaucho

Lindane Platinum Untreated

Treatment Active Ingred. Lorsban 4E chlopyriphos Capture bifenthrin Vydate oxamyl Success spinosad Surround kaolin Platinum thaimethoxam Admire imidacloprid Untreated Control Foliar Sprays on 4/25/02

Rate/Acre 2.75 fl oz /1000’ 0.1# ai 4 pt F 8 fl oz F 50 lb F 0.2# ai 1.0 qt F

Over the top sprays

ANOVA Table for Seed/ 3 ft Row exclusion: m aggot dam age m ay 2002.xls (im ported) DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Treatment Residual

7

598.234

85.462

56

3896.875

69.587

1.228

P-Value

Lambda

Pow er

.3031

8.597

.473

0 Vydate

Surround

Success

Platinum

Lorsban

Control

Capture

Admire

Over the top sprays

60

50

40

30

20

10

Band Treatments Treatment Gaucho

Active Ingred. imidacloprid

Rate 4.0 fl oz

Platinum

Thimethoxam

3.0 fl oz

Band Treatments 70

Interaction Bar Plot for Seed/ 3 ft Effect: Treatm ent Error Bars: ± 1 Standard Error(s)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Admire

Commercial

Platinum

Untreated

Comments