KEY TERMS organic chemistry . carbon . hydrocarbon . isomer . single bond . double bond . functional group . hydroxyl . carbonyl . aldehyde . ketone . amino . sulfhydryl
CH. 4 & 5 STUDY GUIDE: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
KEY TERMS organic chemistry carbon hydrocarbon isomer single bond double bond functional group hydroxyl carbonyl aldehyde ketone amino sulfhydryl carboxyl phosphate macromolecule monomer polymer monosaccharide glucose disaccharide dehydration synthesis(=condensation reaction) maltose sucrose lactose hydrolysis polysaccharide starch glycogen cellulose chitin fatty acid saturated unsaturated phospholipid steroid amino acid peptide bond polypeptide disulfide bond primary structure alpha helix secondary structure fibrous proteins keratins pleated sheet tertiary structure quaternary structure denatured proteins conjugated proteins nucleic acids DNA parts of a nucleic acid purines adenine guanine pyrimidines cytosine thymine uracil RNA
WORD ROOTS hydro - = water (hydrocarbon: an organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen( iso - = equal (isomer: one of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties) enanti - = opposite (enantiomer: molecules that are mirror images of each other) carb - = coal (carboxyl group: a functional group present in organic acids, consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom) sulf - = sulfur (sulfhydryl group: a functional group that consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen) thio - = sulfur (thiol: organic compounds containg sulfhydryl groups) con - = together (condensation reaction: a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water) di - = two (disaccharide: two monosaccharides joined together) glyco - = sweet (glycogen: a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy in animals) hydro - = water; - lyse = break (hydrolysis: breaking chemical bonds by adding water) macro - = large (macromolecule: a large molecule) meros - = part (polymer: a chain made from smaller organic molecules) mono - = single; - sacchar = sugar (monosaccharide: simplest type of sugar) poly - = many (polysaccharide: many monosaccharides joined together) tri - = three (triacylglycerol: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule)
QUESTIONS 1. What is the role of carbon in the molecular diversity of life? Why is carbon SO important?
2. Describe the structure of a typical monosaccharide such as glucose. Write out a condensation reaction between two glucose molecules, and explain hydrolysis.
3. Fill in the following table on the functional groups: | | |Names & | |Functional Group |Molecular Formula |Characteristics of | | | |Organic Compounds | | | |Containing Functional| | | |Group | | |-OH | | | | |Aldehyde or ketone; | | | |polar group | |Carboxyl | | | | |-NH2 | | | | |Thiols; cross-links | | | |stabilize protein | | | |structure | |Phosphate | | |
4. Explain the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fatty acid. Explain how three fatty acids can react with glycerol to make a fat.
5. Diagram a phospholipid molecule and point out the polar and nonpolar ends. Identify the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends of this molecule.
6. Identify the alpha-carbon, the carboxyl group, the amino group and the R group of an amino acid.
7. Differentiate between the various levels of protein structure-primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Explain why proteins are so sensitive to changes in temperature and pH.
8. Diagram an individual nucleotide, identify the five-carbon (pentose) sugar, the phosphate group and the nitrogenous base. Indicate with an arrow where the phosphate group of the next nucleotide would attach to build a polynucleotide. Is it a purine or a pyrimidine? Is it a DNA or an RNA nucleotide?
9. Identify examples of each of the four main classes of organic molecules and the building block components of each.