The Mongols - White Plains Public Schools

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Economically the tribal unit was optimal for a pastoral-nomadic group, but Chinggis ... In general, Chinggis provided tax relief to Buddhist monasteries and to a ...
Chinggis Khan and the Mongols Global History and Geography I E. Napp Name: ____________________ Date: _________

Chinggis (Genghis) Khan was born probably in 1167, though Mongol tradition has it that he was born in 1162. Because much of his early life is not recorded, except in myth, reliable knowledge of Chinggis's early life is very limited. What we do know is that his father was assassinated when Chinggis was nine years old, and that this event left his family extremely vulnerable. Chinggis's mother kept her family together. She kept the family going in the harsh desert lands of Mongolia, surviving on nuts and berries or whatever else they could find. She taught Chinggis the basic skills of survival, particularly those needed for survival in the steppes and in the desert. Questions for Reflection: 1- Why do historians know little of Chinggis Khan’s early life? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ 2- Why was Chinggis Khan’s mother important to the future leader of the Mongols? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

Many believe that Chinggis Khan’s unification of the Mongols — rather than his conquests — was Chinggis Khan's biggest accomplishment. Unifying the Mongols was no small achievement — it meant bringing together a whole series of different tribes. Economically the tribal unit was optimal for a pastoral-nomadic group, but Chinggis brought all the tribes together into one confederation, with all its loyalty placed in himself. This was indeed a grand achievement in a country as vast as Mongolia, an area approximately four times the size of France. Questions for Reflection: 1- What was Chinggis Khan’s biggest accomplishment? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ 2- Why was this accomplishment significant? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

Once Chinggis had succeeded in bringing the Mongols together, in 1206, a meeting of the so-called Khuriltai (an assemblage of the Mongol nobility) gave their new leader the title of "Chinggis Khan": Khan of All Between the Oceans. Chinggis's birth name was Temujin; giving him the title "Chinggis Khan" was an acknowledgment by the Mongol nobles of Chinggis's leadership and their loyalty. From that point on Temujin would be the Khan of all within Mongolia and of the Mongols. Questions for Reflection: 1- What was Chinggis’ birth name? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ 2- Why did the Mongols give their new leader the title of “Chinggis Khan”? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

One of Chinggis Khan's greatest legacies was the principle of religious tolerance. In general, Chinggis provided tax relief to Buddhist monasteries and to a variety of other religious institutions. And though Chinggis himself never converted to any of the religions of the sedentary peoples he conquered (he remained loyal to Mongolian shamanism), he was quite interested in Daoism. The creation of the first Mongol written language was another legacy of Chinggis Khan.

Many Westerners accept the stereotype of Chinggis as a barbaric plunderer intent on maiming, slaughtering, and destroying other peoples and civilizations. To the Mongols, however, Chinggis Khan is a great national hero who united all the Mongol tribes and carved out the largest contiguous land empire in world history. And according to this latter view, Chinggis and his descendants promoted frequent and extended contacts among the civilizations of Europe and Asia, ushering in an era of extraordinary interaction of goods, ideas, religions, and technology. Questions for Reflection: 1- What were some of the accomplishments of Chinggis Khan? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ 2- How do Westerners and Mongols differ in their views of Chinggis Khan? _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

The Venetian merchant and adventurer, Marco Polo, was in China from 1275 to 1291 and returned to Europe with extraordinary accounts of his travels in Persia, China, Central Asia, Armenia, and Southeast Asia among other places. Marco Polo met Kublai Khan, the grandson of Chinggis Khan and the ruler of China. |Marco Polo Visits Tin-gui | |Marco Polo was a Venetian trader who visited Mongol China in| |1275 with his father and uncle. Marco Polo's father and | |uncle were merchants eager to meet new people and trade for | |new goods. This gave Marco Polo the chance to see many | |different people, places and goods. After meeting China's | |Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, Marco Polo traveled throughout | |his realm as his ambassador. For 17 years, Marco Polo | |recorded his impressions of this land seen by very few | |Europeans. Upon his return to Europe in 1295, Marco Polo | |spent many years in prison. Here he told the stories of his | |great journeys to Rustichiello of Pisa who recorded them | |into the book Il milione. | |Read the passage from Il milione below. Pay close attention | |to Marco Polo's description of Tin-gui's main product and | |how it was made. Then use this passage, and what you already| |know about Marco Polo, to complete the puzzle. | |". . . Of this place [the city of Tin-gui] there is nothing | |further to be observed, than that of cups or bowls and | |dishes of porcelainware are there manufactured. The process | |was explained to be as follows. They collect a certain kind | |of earth, as it were, from a mine, and laying it in a great | |heap, suffer it to be exposed to the wind, the rain, and the| |sun, for thirty or forty years, during which time it is | |never disturbed. By this it becomes refined and fit for | |being wrought into the vessels above mentioned. Such colours| |as may be thought proper are then laid on, and the ware is | |afterwards baked in ovens or furnaces. Those persons, | |therefore, who cause the earth to be dug, collect it for | |their children and grandchildren. Great quantities of the | |manufacture are sold in the city, and for a Venetian groat | |you may purchase eight porcelain cups." | |Read each clue to help you complete the puzzle. | |[pic] | |Across | |1. Tin-gui product | |4. ". . . the ware is afterwards baked in ovens or _____. ."| | | |7. Marco Polo's traveling companion | |9. Marco Polo's job with Kublai Khan | |Down | |2. Marco Polo visited ___. | |3. Marco Polo's home | |4. The people of Tin-gui exposed the earth to wind, rain, | |and sun for thirty to _____ years. | |5. Marco Polo passed through this country going to and | |leaving China. | |6. Marco Polo's father was a _____ . | |8. The rulers of China in 1275 |

Historians value the writings of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta because they

(1) serve as primary sources about trade and culture (2) provide the basis for European holy books (3) include advice on how to be a democratic ruler (4) present unbiased views of life in Africa and Asia

Which statement about the Mongols is most accurate? (1) The Yuan dynasty kept China isolated from outside influence. (2) Most of the Chinese people lived in the river valleys. (3) Kublai Khan and Genghis Khan extended Mongol influence to other parts of Asia. (4) The city of Samarkand was part of the Yuan Empire.