What is Pathological Gambling - eiu.edu

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Money skimmed from sports betting ... the illegal practice by one or more student athletes who deliberately alter the score of a game to beat or lose to the spread ...
Introduction [pic]

College coaching is one of the most challenging jobs, period. We designed this guidebook to help make your job easier. We answer some tough questions, such as:

➢ How do I know when Student-Athletes (SAs) are gambling? ➢ What do I do if I believe my SA is gambling? ➢ How do I talk to my SA about this issue? ➢ What do I do after? ➢ Where can I turn for help?

The NCAA continues to provide excellent materials about gambling, but we found a need for a playbook for coaches to deal with this problem, one on one with an SA. Who else is closer to SAs and is in a position of authority and respect?

This guidebook was designed to help coaches and athletic departments deal effectively with the growing problem of gambling. The materials provided include basic gambling information, NCAA rules and regulations, examples of real cases, a step-by-step guide on how to recognize and deal with SA gambling, and a resource list for further support.

After reviewing these materials, you should be able to: ▪ Recognize warning signs that your SA may be gambling and learn how to address it. ▪ Increase your understanding of gambling-related issues for yourself and your SAs. ▪ Feel comfortable researching and then talking to your SA about gambling problems. ▪ Learn some of the jargon of gambling so you can “talk the talk.” ▪ Intervene and prevent gambling problems among SAs at a crucial time of their lives. ▪ Support your student athlete, no matter what.


Table of Contents


I. The Gambling Epidemic Among Student-Athletes ………………….. Page 4

II. Rules and Sanctions Established by the NCAA ………………….. Page 6

III. Social vs. Pathological Gambling ………………….. Page 8

IV. Actual Infraction Cases from the NCAA ………………….. Page 9

V. Types of Gambling ………………….. Page 12

VI. How Can Coaches Help Their Student-Athletes? ………………….. Page 13

A. Step 1 – Identify the Issue B. Step 2 – Taking Action to Help Your SA C. Step 3 – Provide Support

Hypothetical Discussions Between a Coach & a Student-Athlete … Page 18

Summary ………………….. Page 23

VII. Resources and Referral Options ………………….. Page 24

VIII. Appendices ………………….. Page 26

A. About the Illinois Higher Education Center B. About the University of Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Office C. NCAA Infraction Case Reports

The Gambling Epidemic Among Student-Athletes


From an NCAA Press Release dated May 12, 2004:

“The scope of sports wagering among intercollegiate student-athletes is startling and disturbing,” said NCAA President Myles Brand. “Sports wagering is a double-threat because it harms the well-being of student- athletes and the integrity of college sports.”

The Threat to Collegiate Athletics From the NCAA web-site:

The explosive growth of gambling has caused a noticeable increase in the number of sports wagering-related cases processed by the NCAA and threatens the integrity of college sports.

Big money attracts organized crime and illegal sports wagering is big money. The FBI projected that 2.5 billion dollars was illegally gambled on the 1995 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship, second only to the National Football League's Super Bowl. Money skimmed from sports betting schemes is used to fund a host of illegal activities including the sale of narcotics and loan sharking. These activities are never evident to the casual bettor but are not lost on the law enforcement community. Student- athletes are viewed by organized crime and organized gambling as easy marks. When student-athletes place bets with a bookie, they have jeopardized their eligibility and have broken the law. The bookie now is in control. If a student-athlete is sufficiently indebted or addicted, point shaving often is introduced as a way out. Bookies also use students as "runners" to collect debts and parlay sheets for which the bookie pays a commission. Gamblers also pay a commission for information related to sports teams (e.g., injury reports, morale, game plans and discipline issues).

A study by the University of Cincinnati of 648 Division I intercollegiate men's basketball and football respondents indicated that 25.5% had gambled money on other college sporting events, 3.7% had gambled money on a game in which they had played, and that 0.5% received money from a gambler for not playing well in a game.

The NCAA's Position on Sports Wagering

The NCAA opposes all forms of legal and illegal sports wagering. Sports wagering has the potential to undermine the integrity of sports contests, and jeopardizes the welfare of student-athletes and the intercollegiate athletics community. Sports wagering demeans the competition and competitors alike by a message that is contrary to the purposes and meaning of "sport." Sports competition should be appreciated for the inherent benefits related to participation of student-athletes, coaches and institutions in fair contests, not the amount of money wagered on the outcome of the competition.

From the Testimony of Robert J. Minnix, Associate Athletic Director at Florida State University before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime on March 9, 2000:

A 1998 study conducted by the University of Michigan revealed that 35% of student-athletes gambled on sports while attending college. Over 5% of male student-athletes wagered on a game in which they participated, provided inside information for gambling purposes, or accepted money for performing poorly in a contest. This result was particularly interesting, since NCAA rules strictly prohibit student-athletes, coaches and athletics administrators from engaging in sports gambling activities as they relate to intercollegiate or professional sporting events.

[pic] Rules and Sanctions Established by the NCAA


This section provides you with the NCAA Bylaws and Sanctions applicable to gambling.

10.3 GAMBLING ACTIVITIES Staff members of a member conference, staff members of the athletics department of a member institution and student-athletes shall not knowingly: (Revised: 4/22/98 effective 8/1/98)

(a) Provide information to individuals involved in organized gambling activities concerning intercollegiate athletics competition;

(b) Solicit a bet on any intercollegiate team;

(c) Accept a bet on any team representing the institution;

(d) Solicit or accept a bet on any intercollegiate competition for any item (e.g., cash, shirt, dinner) that has tangible value; or (Revised: 9/15/97)

(e) Participate in any gambling activity that involves intercollegiate athletics or professional athletics, through a bookmaker, a parlay card or any other method employed by organized gambling. (Revised: 1/9/96, 1/14/97 effective 8/1/97)

The NCAA's Interpretations Committee clarified the scope of Bylaw 10.3 to preclude a student-athlete from soliciting or accepting a bet for a non- monetary material item that has tangible value. The committee noted, however, that institutions that compete against each other may agree to participate for a tangible item (e.g., Governor’s Cup), provided no student- athletes receive any tangible item. The Interpretations Committee also decided that the prohibition against student-athletes and athletics department staff members participating in gambling activities associated with professional sports events is applicable to those sports in which the Association conducts championship competition, Division I-A football and emerging sports.

In June 1995, the NCAA Eligibility Committee determined that higher conditions for restoration of eligibility should occur in cases involving gambling and instructed NCAA eligibility staff to begin imposing such standards immediately. Accordingly, the staff reviews prior case precedent from June 1995 to the present in determining the appropriate conditions for restoration involving such cases.

This next section provides you with the consequences of violations to Bylaw 10.3.

10.3.1 Sanctions The following sanctions for violations of Bylaw 10.3 shall apply as follows: (Adopted: 4/27/00 effective 8/1/00)

(a) A student-athlete who engages in activities designed to influence the outcome of an intercollegiate contest or in an effort to affect win-loss margins (i.e., "point shaving") or who solicits or accepts a bet or participates in any gambling activity through a bookmaker, a parlay card or any other method employed by organized gambling that involves wagering on the student-athlete’s institution shall permanently lose all remaining regular-season and postseason eligibility in all sports.

(b) A student-athlete who solicits or accepts a bet or participates in any gambling activity that involves intercollegiate athletics or professional athletics, through a bookmaker, a parlay card or any other method employed by organized gambling, shall be ineligible for all regular-season and postseason competition for a minimum of a period of one year from the date of the institution’s determination that a violation has occurred and shall be charged with the loss of a minimum of one season of competition. A request for reinstatement may be submitted on behalf of a student-athlete who has participated in such activity only upon fulfillment of the minimum condition indicated above. If the student-athlete is determined to have been involved in a subsequent violation of any portion of Bylaw 10.3, the student-athlete shall permanently lose all remaining regular-season and postseason eligibility in all sports.

Social vs. Pathological Gambling [pic]

How serious is the epidemic of gambling among SAs? To answer that question, first we must examine the differences between Social and Pathological Gambling.

Social Gambling can be defined as playing a game of chance for stakes. Gambling occurs in many forms, most commonly pari-mutuels (horse and dog tracks, off-track-betting parlors, Jai Alai), lotteries, casinos (slot machines, table games), bookmaking (sports books and horse books), card rooms, bingo and the stock market.

Pathological Gambling is a progressive disease that devastates not only the gambler but everyone with whom he or she has a significant relationship. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association accepted pathological gambling as a "disorder of impulse control." It is an illness that is chronic and progressive, but it can be diagnosed and treated. Robert L. Custer, M.D., identified the progression of the illness as including three phases:

The Winning Phase The Losing Phase The Desperation Phase

During the Winning Phase, the gambler experiences a big win or series of wins that leaves him/her with unreasonable optimism that his/her winning will continue. This leads him/her to feel much excitement when gambling and he/she begins increasing the amount of his/her bets.

During the Losing Phase, the gambler often begins bragging about wins, starts gambling alone, thinks more about gambling and borrows money legally or illegally. He/she starts lying to family and friends and becomes more irritable, restless and withdrawn. His/her home life becomes unhappier and he/she is unable to pay off debts. Gamblers begin to "chase" their losses by believing that after losing they must return as soon as possible to win back their losses.

During the Desperation Phase, there is a marked increase in the time spent gambling accompanied by remorse, blaming others and alienation from family and friends. Eventually the gambler may engage in illegal acts to finance his/her gambling, and experience hopelessness, suicide thoughts and attempts, arrests, divorce, alcohol and/or other drug abuse, or an emotional breakdown.

When a SA reaches the Desperation Phase, he/she is most susceptible to receive compensation for point shaving. Point shaving is the illegal practice by one or more student athletes who deliberately alter the score of a game to beat or lose to the spread.

Actual Infraction Cases from the NCAA


To clearly illustrate the gambling epidemic within the collegiate system, we are providing four examples of actual case reports of violations of Bylaw 10.3. Examples 1 and 2 deal with SA cases, whereas Examples 3 and 4 focus on Staff Member cases. Additional case reports can be found in Appendix A.

Case #1:

❖ Facts: SAs participated in an organized sports pool in which they picked winners of numerous intercollegiate athletic contests. SAs won pool on one occasion. SAs were not required to pay fee to enter pool.

❖ Institutional Action: Institution prohibited SAs from collecting winnings from pool ($50 gift certificate). Also, institution will require SAs to perform 10 hours of community service and will withhold SAs from 2 contests.

❖ Enforcement Action: Not applicable.

❖ Rationale: Based on case precedent.

Case #2:

❖ Facts: SA placed one $600 wager on a professional football contest and 8 to 9 $100-$200 wagers on intercollegiate football contests during the 1996-97 academic year.

❖ Institutional Action: Institution withheld SA from 3 contests during the 1996-97 season. SA attended gambling counseling sessions in the spring 1997 semester. He was placed on university probation and was on deferred university housing suspension through December 1997. SA also required to perform 15 hours of community service.

❖ Enforcement Action: Not applicable.

❖ Rationale: After reviewing prior case precedent, staff determined that SA should not be restored based on the large individual wagers as well as the total amount of money wagered. However, staff considered the critical injury SA sustained recently and determined that if SA was provided with at least some remaining eligibility, this may assist in SA’s rehabilitative efforts.

Case #3:

❖ Facts: During the fall of 2002, the associate athletics director for special events, an athletics department staff assistant and the student assistant for media relations each paid a $50 entry fee to participate in an NFL fantasy football league that awarded a $250 prize. The staff members were aware of the ban on gambling activities, but believed participation in a fantasy league was permissible inasmuch as it involved wagering on individual players’ performances as opposed to the outcome of specific contents.

❖ Institutional Action: The director of compliance services discussed the relevant legislation and issued a memorandum of understanding/letter of admonishment to individuals involved in this violation and required that they sign off on the memo. The director of compliance services also discussed the relevant legislation (and the fact it applied to fantasy leagues) with all staff members in the sports information department. An e-mail was sent with high priority to all athletics staff members regarding the full application of the gambling ban. This issue will also be addressed at each departmental compliance meeting this fall and will be the topic of next week’s newsletter e-mailed weekly to every staff member. The booster newsletter compliance article will address this ban and the director of compliance services will send a letter to all local media (who apparently are also in the fantasy league), so that they are aware that athletics staff may not participate in those leagues with them.

❖ Enforcement Action: The institution should be required to suspend the associate athletics director for special events and the athletics department staff assistant from all athletically related activities and duties for a period of two days, and suspend the student assistant for media relations from all athletically related activities and duties for a period of one day.

❖ Rationale: Staff.

Case #4:

❖ Facts: A former assistant football coach and a former restricted assistant football coach placed bets on professional and intercollegiate football games during the 1997 and 1998 football seasons. The assistant coach wagered $20 to $50 per game on six to twelve weekends.

❖ Institutional Action: The institution requested and received the resignation of the assistant football coach and the restricted football coach. Further, the institution will not rehire either coach within the athletics department and will not hire either coach in a position outside of the athletics department for a period of five years. In addition, the institution reviewed and implemented numerous educational programs for all athletics department staff members and SAs, as well as establishing gambling awareness programs in the community.

❖ Enforcement Action: With regard to institutional responsibility for the violations, it was determined that the case should be classified as secondary and that no further action should be taken by the NCAA against the institution. However, as a result of their gambling activities, it was determined that the assistant football coach and the restricted access football coach should be suspended from all coaching related activities for a period of two years, beginning with the date that each coach resigned his coaching position at the institution. If either coach seeks employment or affiliation in any athletically related position at any NCAA member institution during that two-year period, the involved institution shall be requested to appear before the Committee on Infractions to show cause why that institution should not be subject to penalties.

❖ Rationale: Not applicable.


Types of Gambling [pic]

This section will familiarize you with the most popular forms of gambling.

Sports Gambling:

▪ Betting through bookmakers (“bookies”) ▪ Pool betting on events such as NCAA Tournaments ▪ Betting between individuals ▪ Fantasy League betting ▪ Point Shaving

Other Types of Gambling:

▪ Betting on card and dice games such as poker and craps ▪ Betting through legalized professional gambling institutions such as casinos, race tracks, and off-track betting sites

▪ Internet websites that offer a variety of gambling options [pic]

Student-Athletes most commonly bet on:

▪ Sports ▪ Blackjack and Poker – Texas Hold ‘Em is a popular type of poker. To learn more about Texas Hold ‘Em, visit www.texasholdem-poker.com.

▪ Craps ▪ Roulette How Can Coaches Help Their Student-Athletes?


Now that you have learned some basics about the risks and consequences of gambling, we are going to walk you through a step-by-step approach to effectively identify gambling activities, take appropriate action, and provide support to your SA.

Step 1: Identify the Issue – What have you heard, seen, and felt? Here are some phrases and terms that coaches can listen for:

Regarding Sports Betting:

▪ A-Rod really messed me up this week. ▪ Fantasy teams – head-to-head and rotisserie ▪ NCAA Pool, brackets ▪ What’s the spread/line on tonight’s game? ▪ I had the Bears, and he gave me 4½. ▪ I covered with a last second field goal! ▪ Double or nothing ▪ I was dying, but my Gators/Bulldogs parlay saved me! (A parlay combines 2 or more bets, which increases both the risk and payout if successful. For example, one parlay bet of $50 for both Florida to beat Alabama and Georgia to beat LSU pays $115, but only if both teams win. Whereas, two independent bets of $50 on each game would pay only $100 if both teams won.)

▪ I was down a ‘buck and a quarter,’ but finished up almost even. (A ‘buck and a quarter’ is actually $125, but sounds harmless.)


▪ I moved all in with pocket tens and flopped a set of them. (Texas Hold ‘Em Poker) ▪ I called with 8-9 suited and made my flush on the river. (Texas Hold ‘Em Poker) ▪ I had odds on 4’s, 6’s, and 8’s with a hot roller. (Craps) ▪ Rollin’ the bones, Virgin roller, Odds on 8’s (Craps) ▪ I doubled down with 11 and the dealer gave me a 9. Then she busted with 15 showing. (Blackjack)

▪ OTB (Off-Track Betting) and “road-tripping” to boating casino towns, such as Peoria, St. Louis, and Joliet Here are some behavioral and personal changes coaches can look for:

▪ Mood swings, erratic behavior ▪ Exchanges of money between SAs ▪ New clothes, electronics, and other personal items ▪ Unexplained changes in athletic performance ▪ Card games that supposedly do or don’t involve any money

If you feel something is wrong but you are not sure what it is, then go with your gut and take action.

Step 2: Taking Action to Help Your SA

Prepare yourself:

▪ Gain a better understanding about gambling with the enclosed materials. ▪ Check out the attached resource list and visit some websites. ▪ Block out 20 minutes to talk privately with the SA about your concerns.

Express concern through “I statements”:

▪ I am concerned about you and what I heard you say yesterday. ▪ I am curious about something I observed last week and want to talk to you about it. ▪ I want to talk to you because I noticed your mood seems down lately. ▪ I was wondering about your new laptop and MP3 player. That stuff is pretty expensive, right?

Ask specific gambling questions: ▪ Have you gambled on any sporting events in the last year? Which teams? College or Professional?

▪ When was your last bet of any kind?

▪ Have you played cards or any other games for money?

▪ Are you involved in any fantasy sports leagues?

▪ Are you betting with teammates, or through a bookie? The questions above can be used in the meeting with your SA. You may also reference these 20 questions provided by Gambler’s Anonymous. Gambler’s Anonymous suggests that a response of “yes” to 7 or more of these may indicate a gambling problem.

▪ Do you have a gambling problem? ▪ Did you ever lose time from work due to gambling? ▪ Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? ▪ Did gambling affect your reputation? ▪ Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? ▪ Did you ever gamble to get money in which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties?

▪ Did gambling cause a decrease in your ambition or efficiency? ▪ After losing, did you feel you must return as soon as possible to win back your losses?

▪ After a win, did you have a strong urge to return and win more? ▪ Did you often gamble until your last dollar was gone? ▪ Did you ever borrow to finance your gambling? ▪ Have you ever sold anything to finance your gambling? ▪ Were you reluctant to use "gambling money" for normal expenditures? ▪ Did gambling make you careless of the welfare of yourself and your family? ▪ Did you ever gamble longer than you planned? ▪ Have you ever gambled to escape worry or trouble? ▪ Have you ever committed, or considered committing an illegal act to finance gambling?

▪ Did gambling cause you to have difficulty in sleeping? ▪ Do arguments, disappointments or frustrations create within you an urge to gamble? ▪ Have you ever considered self-destruction as a result of your gambling?

Encourage honest explanations instead of “yes” or “no” answers:

▪ I need to know the whole story so I can help you, so tell me more about your first time betting on the NCAA tournament.

▪ What made you think it was a sure bet? ▪ How did you come up with your system of betting? ▪ I need you to be completely honest with me so we can figure this out together. Talk about your pattern of winning and losing in the last few months.

Expect some level of denial:

Denial is a defensive response used to protect a person from pain, hurt, or suffering. A SA may use denial as a shield to prevent others from discovering his/her gambling activities. Denial impairs judgment and results in a SA becoming trapped in a potentially destructive pattern of behavior. Denial may surface in the following ways:

▪ Simple Denial: Maintaining that something is not true when it is obviously true to important others in the person’s life

▪ Minimizing: Admitting superficially to the problem but will not admit that it is serious in scope

▪ Blaming: Refusing to take responsibility for certain behaviors and fixing the blame on someone or something else

▪ Rationalizing: Offering alibis, excuses, justifications, or other explanations for behaviors

▪ Intellectualizing: Avoiding emotional, personal awareness of a problem by dealing with it on a level of generalization, intellectual analyses, or theorizing

▪ Diversion: Changing the subject to avoid discussion of the topic that is threatening ▪ Hostility: Becoming angry or irritable when reference is made to the problem

Explore the scope of the issue to help determine what to do next:

▪ How much money have you won in the last 12 months? ▪ How much money have you lost in the last 12 months? ▪ How long have you been chasing your losses?

▪ Are there any connections between your betting and your: ➢ Personal relationships with friends, teammates, significant others ➢ Family ➢ Pressure of school and sports ➢ Financial problems ➢ Desire to compete

Provide direction at the end of your meeting:

▪ Summarize the meeting ▪ Advise SA to stop all gambling activities immediately ▪ Discuss what you will do next (refer to Step 3 below)

Step 3: Provide Support

After the meeting with your SA:

▪ Consult with the Athletic Director to discuss the situation and follow proper policies and procedures

▪ Contact your campus and/or community treatment and counseling providers to determine what services are available

▪ Help facilitate communication between SA and appropriate service providers ▪ Continue to meet with your SA regularly to provide support and guidance

Hypothetical Discussions Between a Coach & a Student-Athlete [pic]

These hypothetical discussions were created to reflect actual cases that were investigated by NCAA officials regarding infractions against the gambling bylaws. Each sample follows the three steps discussed in the previous section: Identify the Issue, Take Action, and Provide Support.

Discussion #1:

Coach hears two SAs (Alex and Kevin) talking about making a trade with each other. The trade involves some professional baseball players. Coach decides to do a little research and discovers the trade might be related to a fantasy baseball league. Coach knows this could be serious and plans to talk to both SAs, starting with Alex. Here is the conversation with Alex.

Coach: “Hey Alex, come on in and have a seat. I was curious about something I heard you say the other day after practice. It sounded like you were making some kind of trade with Kevin. What was that all about?”

Alex: “Oh, that. We were just talking about what we saw on SportsCenter the night before.”

Coach: “Alex, I need you to be honest with me. This is important. The players you were talking about trading are not even on the same team. Could this be a fantasy league trade you were discussing?”

Alex: (Long pause) “That’s not illegal, is it? I mean, we didn’t pay any money and it’s not real sports betting, right? I thought if we don’t accept any prize money, we’re ok.”

Coach: “It’s not that simple. The NCAA considers fantasy sports a form of gambling. How long have you been involved in the league and how did you get started?”

Alex: “This is my first time, I swear! The season started about 6 weeks ago. We heard about it from some guys in the dorm. Are we in big trouble?”

Coach: “I’m not sure. Are you involved in any other types of gambling? Maybe poker, online betting, anything at all?”

Alex: “No, coach, and I didn’t even think this fantasy league was gambling.”

Coach: “Anything else going on unrelated to this fantasy league? Grades, family, friends?”

Alex: “I could use more sleep and time, you know. But all that is ok. I think I’m keeping up with stuff.”

Coach: “Good, I’m glad to hear that. OK, here’s our game plan. First, do not participate any more in the fantasy league, or any other form of gambling. Second, I’m going to talk to the athletic director and present the facts. I’ll let you know what’s up as soon as possible. It sounds like we caught this early and you did a good job of trusting me.”

Discussion #2:

Coach observes Antonio very tired over the last few weeks and then hears him talking to a teammate about surviving three ‘all ins,’ in a row last night. Coach does a little research and recognizes this as poker terminology (Texas Hold ‘Em No Limit). Coach decides to meet with Antonio to see if he can help.

Coach: “Thanks for coming in. I’m concerned about you, Antonio. I have seen you walking around like a zombie lately, and then I heard you say something about ‘all ins’ the other day. Are you playing poker for money?”

Antonio: “Well, it’s really just for fun, you know, a couple dollars here and there. I sometimes play to blow off steam and relax. It’s no big deal.”

Coach: “How much money are we really talking about?”

Antonio: “Not much. Maybe $5 or $10 per night. Sometimes I’m up or down $20.”

Coach: “OK. And how often do you play?”

Antonio: “About 2 or 3 times per week, after I’m done with all my stuff.”

Coach: “How long do you play per night?”

Antonio: “Time really flies! I sometimes start at 11 pm and go until 3 or 4 am.”

Coach: “Well that may explain why you look so tired all the time. How long have you been playing?”

Antonio: “I’d say about 3 or 4 months.”

Coach: “Is that about the same time you hurt your ankle?”

Antonio: “Yeah, I was pretty depressed back then and playing cards was a great way to forget about it for a while.”

Coach: “Well, I see two potential problems. One, you should know that gambling is illegal and is a violation of NCAA rules. We will take a look at those rules in a minute. Two, I think poker might be more of an issue than you think. You are spending at least 12 hours per week gambling and not getting enough sleep. Your ankle is not a problem any more, but you are still gambling. What do you make of that?”

Antonio: “I don’t know. I haven’t really thought about it like that. What do you think I should do?”

Coach: “First, you need to stop all gambling. Second, let’s look at the NCAA rules and we will make some calls to see who is the right person to talk to about your gambling. Then we will meet with the Athletic Director and discuss our options. How does that sound to you?”

Antonio: “Cool. Later Coach.”

Discussion #3:

A women’s basketball coach overhears from several assistants that some of the student-athletes are becoming very interested in the NCAA Men’s Basketball Tournament and have even discovered that some of the SAs have completed “brackets.” The coach decides to set up a meeting with Sarah, the team captain.

Coach: “Hi Sarah. I called you in to talk with you about something that has recently come up. I’ve been overhearing that some of you on the team may be involved in gambling on the NCAA Tournament.”

Sarah: “Well Coach, we’re not really doing anything wrong. Just filling out the brackets like everyone else.”

Coach: “I see. Well does this involve any money?”

Sarah: “Only about $5 or so. That’s not a big deal, is it?”

Coach: “To be honest with you, Sarah, the NCAA has guidelines that require us to stay away from all types of sports-betting activities. How many of you have been participating in this pool?”

Sarah: “I’m not 100% sure, but I think it’s about eight of us. Is it because of the money?”

Coach: “Well, it’s about the money and also about the behavior and potential consequences if this becomes habitual. However, even though we’re not talking about a significant amount of money, it’s still gambling, and I will need to further discuss it with the athletic director.”

Sarah: “Well, what happens if we just stop and give the money back to everyone?”

Coach: “I think it’s a good idea to not gamble any more and have the person in charge of this give everyone back his or her money. But, this is something that I will still need to report, so that I will know what our options are. As our captain, Sarah, I’m glad that you set the example for others by being honest with me.”

Sarah: “Well, I’ve got nothing to lie about. It’s just something I don’t think we knew was against the rules.”

Coach: “I think you definitely have a point there. Perhaps we can get someone in here to talk more about this. Also, I’ve been told that the more proactive we are, the better the situation is with the NCAA. I’ll be holding a team meeting today after practice to discuss gambling. All forms of gambling need to stop right now. Are we clear on that?”

Sarah: “Yeah Coach.”

Coach: “Okay. I’m also going to set up a meeting with the athletic director. Then I’ll know where to go from here. Sound good?”

Sarah: “Sounds good. Thanks Coach.”

Discussion #4:

Coach notices some odd behavior from his SA, Sean, over the last several weeks. Sean appears nervous and unfocused at practice. Coach also overheard Sean talking to a teammate about selling his laptop to get some money. Worried about his SA, Coach does a little research and decides to schedule 20 minutes to talk to Sean.

Coach: “I want to talk to you because I notice your mood seems different lately. I see a lack of concentration during practice and I heard you talking about selling your laptop. I’m worried about you. What’s going on?”

Sean: “I’m just stressed from everything, you know.”

Coach: “Yes, you certainly do have a lot to juggle right now with school and the team. However, I’m wondering if there’s more to it than that. You know you can tell me anything, right?”

Sean: “Yeah, I know. I guess there might be something, but really it’s nothing.”

Coach: “Let’s start with why you need to sell your laptop.”

Sean: “I owe someone some money and I thought it would be an easy way to pay them back.”

Coach: “Does the reason you owe money have something to do with gambling?”

Sean: (Big sigh) “Yeah, I was winning and then started losing bets to this guy. I wanted to stop, but I owe him $500 and I don’t have that kind of money.”

Coach: “OK. Go back to the beginning and tell me how you started betting.”

Sean: “Well, this guy I know from class was talking about how Oregon was going to kill Stanford that weekend in football. I told him he was crazy and he said ‘Do you wanna bet?’ So I won $10 from him and we’ve been betting more and more each week.”

Coach: “When was the first bet?”

Sean: “The Oregon game was about six weeks ago. I guess it just got out of hand. I’m in big trouble, huh?”

Coach: “I’m not sure how much trouble you’re in. I do know that being honest with me will help minimize any consequences. Do you have any current bets with this guy?”

Sean: “No, he told me I had to pay up the $500 before I can make any more bets. I know I should have stopped, but I thought I could win back what I lost and then stop.”

Coach: “So let me make sure I understand this. You started betting six weeks ago with another student who is not an athlete, right?”

Sean: “Right.”

Coach: “You were winning, then started to lose. How much was your last bet with him to get $500 down?”

Sean: “I was down $250 and bet that much on Notre Dame to beat USC. The Irish were up, but they lost. I was so pissed! That put me down $500.”

Coach: “OK. So then you decided to sell your computer to pay off the debt?”

Sean: “Yeah, that was my plan. Now what?”

Coach: “Well, I need to talk to the AD and find out what needs to happen. I’m also going to call the counseling center and see if they can help. You and I will then meet again to discuss options. Also, no more bets of any kind with anyone, understand?”

Sean: “Yes, no more bets.”



In this guidebook, we have explored the epidemic of gambling in the collegiate system, the rules and sanctions established by the NCAA, and some different types of gambling. We examined actual infractions generated by NCAA case reports and took a closer look at the different types of gambling that are available and commonly engaged in by student-athletes.

After examining this information, we provided you with a 3-step process to help your student-athlete who may be involved in gambling activities. Those three steps are:

1. Identifying the issue 2. Taking action 3. Providing support

The hypothetical discussions should serve as a useful tool in guiding a coach through a crucial conversation with a student-athlete. In summary, we would like to offer our appreciation for taking the time to review this guidebook. Our hope is that this material will spark further awareness and conversation on the issue of gambling among college athletes.

Resources & Referral Options [pic]

Gambling Information Websites:

▪ http://www.ncpgambling.org/

▪ http://www.responsiblegambling.org/

▪ http://www.addictionrecov.org/addicgam.htm

▪ http://www.gamblersanonymous.org/

▪ http://www.robertperkinson.com/gambling-treatment.htm

▪ http://www.ProblemGambling.com

▪ http://www.hazelden.org

Gambling Treatment Centers and Hotlines:

▪ National Council on Compulsive Gambling 800-522-4700

▪ Tazwood Mental Health Center 600 S 13th Street, Pekin, IL 61554 (877) 579-5112 (toll-free)

▪ Renz Addiction Counseling Center (as listed on ProblemGambling.com) Elgin, IL (847) 742-3545

▪ Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery at Proctor Hospital (as listed on ProblemGambling.com) Peoria, IL (309) 691-1055

▪ State of Illinois Gambling Hotline 1-800-252-1775

▪ Selecting a Treatment Program for Pathological Gambling http://www.addictionrecov.org/paradigm/P_PR_W99/McGraw.html 1-800-522-3784 ▪ Illinois Council on Problem Gambling, Inc. P.O. Box 6489 Evanston, IL 60204 (800) GAMBLING, (800) 296-2026

▪ Gamblers Anonymous International Service Office P.O. Box 17173 Los Angeles, CA 90017 (213) 386-8789

▪ National Council on Problem Gambling 445 W. 59th Street New York, NY 10019 (212) 765-3833, (800) 522-4700

▪ Hazelden Chicago 867 N. Dearborn St.  Chicago, IL 60610-3371  312-943-3534 800-257-7810  Fax: 312-943-3530

▪ Hazelden Center City, MN P.O. Box 11 15245 Pleasant Valley Rd. Center City, MN 55012-0011 651-213-4000 800-257-7810 Fax: 651-213-4411

Appendix A: Illinois Higher Education Center (www.illinoishec.org)


Mission: To reduce negative health and safety consequences to Illinois college students related to alcohol, other drugs and violence and to increase college and community environmental factors that support healthy and safe norms. Goals of the Illinois Higher Education Center: ▪ To develop and sustain a statewide coalition focused on the prevention of high-risk drinking among Illinois college students. ▪ To increase the number of Illinois colleges and universities that have a campus/community coalition and/or a campus task force focusing on alcohol, other drug and violence prevention. ▪ To increase the number of Illinois institutions of higher education that collect and use data in their prevention efforts. ▪ To increase the number of campuses that use evidence-based prevention strategies. ▪ To increase the number of campuses using evaluation in their prevention efforts. ▪ To increase the number of campuses developing and implementing emerging policies based on evidence of effectiveness.

IHEC Services: The Illinois Higher Education Center, with support from the Illinois Department of Human Services, Bureau of Substance Abuse Prevention, and the Illinois Department of Transportation, Division of Traffic Safety, provides the following services to college and universities in Illinois. ▪ Conferences and Trainings ▪ Communication and Clearinghouse Materials ▪ Collaboration and Networking ▪ Assessment, Program Planning, and Evaluation ▪ Funding Opportunities ▪ Policy Improvement and Biennial Review Compliance Assistance ▪ Strategic Planning ▪ Resources and Publications

Contact Information:

Becky Markwell, Director Eastern Illinois University 600 Lincoln Avenue Charleston, IL 61920 217/581-2019 [email protected]

Appendix B: University of Illinois Alcohol & Other Drug Office


The Alcohol and Other Drug Office (AODO) is a project of the Counseling Center, with collaborative sponsors that include the McKinley Health Center.

The mission is to provide focus and structure to facilitate appropriate efforts in order to assess and address problems and drug use on campus with the intent to protect the students’ health, safety, and academic success.

Services include: AODO Assessment/Evaluation, individual counseling, group therapy, educational classes on topics such as alcohol, marijuana, and self- assessment, Referrals/Options to Area Support Groups, as well as information and resources on a multitude of alcohol, drug, and other addictive behaviors.

Contact Information: B. Ilene Harned, MS, CADC, CADP -- AODO Coordinator Amy Carmen-Peck, MSW, LCSW, ACSW -- Counseling Center AODO Specialist Kurt E. Hegeman, MA, CADC, LCPC – Counselor James W. Kobeske, MSW -- Counselor Room 333 McKinley Health Center / Wellness Promotion Telephone: (217) 333-7557 Fax: (217) 244-5336 Open Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (Voice mail after 5 p.m. daily.) http://www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/wellness/aodo/aodomain.htm

Appendix C: NCAA Infraction Case Reports